Wine Analysis (Molecular Methods of Plant Analysis, nr. 6)

Contribuţii de L.S. Conte Editat de Hans-Ferdinand Linskens, John F. Jackson Contribuţii de H. Eschnauer, T. Henick-Kling, J.F. Jackson, H.F. Linskens, G.J. Martin, M.L. Martin, A. Minguzzi, R. Neeb, A.C. Noble, C. S. Ough, A. Rapp, W. Simpkins, V.L. Singleton, T.C. Somers, W.R. Sponholz, E. Verette
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en Limba Engleză Carte Paperback – 15 Apr 2014
Modern Methods of Plant Analysis When the handbook Modern Methods of Plant Analysis was first introduced in 1954 the considerations were: 1. the dependence of scientific progress in biology on the improvement of existing and the introduction of new methods; 2. the difficulty in finding many new analytical methods in specialized journals which are normally not accessible to experimental plant biologists; 3. the fact that in the methods sections of papers the description of methods is frequently so compact, or even sometimes so incomplete that it is difficult to reproduce experiments. These considerations still stand today. The series was highly successful, seven volumes appearing between 1956 and 1964. Since there is still today a demand for the old series, the publisher has decided to resume publication of Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. It is hoped that the New Series will be just as acceptable to those working in plant sciences and related fields as the early volumes undoubtedly were. It is difficult to single out the major reasons for success of any publication, but we believe that the methods published in the first series were up-to-date at the time and presented in a way that made description, as applied to plant material, complete in itself with little need to consult other publications. Contributing authors have attempted to follow these guidelines in this New Series of volumes.
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ISBN-13: 9783642833427
ISBN-10: 364283342X
Pagini: 400
Ilustrații: 9 schwarz-weiße Abbildungen, 39 schwarz-weiße Tabellen, Bibliographie
Dimensiuni: 170 x 244 x 27 mm
Greutate: 0.68 kg
Ediția: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988
Editura: Springer
Colecția Springer
Seria Molecular Methods of Plant Analysis

Locul publicării: Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany

Public țintă



Wine Analysis.- 1 Analytical Methods and Wine Laws.- 2 Tasting Procedure.- 3 Wine Analysis as an Additional Quality Criterion.- 4 Has the Quality of Wines Improved?.- 5 Wine as an Object of Culture.- 6 Analysis in the Detection of Wine Forgery.- Analysis of Wine Sensory Properties.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Types of Sensory Tests.- 2.1 Bench Tests.- 2.2 Discrimination Tests.- 2.3 Intensity Scaling.- 2.4 Descriptive Analysis (DA).- 2.5 Quality Evaluations Using Scorecards.- 3 Correlation of Sensory and Instrumental Data.- 4 Conducting Sensory Tests.- 4.1 Facilities.- 4.2 Protocol.- 4.3 Judge Selection and Training.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- Wine Aroma from Gas Chromatographic Analysis.- References.- Micro-Element Analysis in Wine and Grapes.- 1 Introduction.- 2 General Problems Regarding Trace Element Analysis.- 3 Methods of Trace Element Analysis.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Spectroscopic Methods/Emission and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.- 3.3 Spectrophotometry/Colorimetry.- 3.4 Electrochemical Methods.- 3.5 Isotope Methods.- 3.6 Chromatographic Methods.- 3.7 Mass-Spectrometry.- 4 “Enologic” Speciation.- 5 “Enologic” Taxonomy (Pattern Recognition).- References.- Acids and Amino Acids in Grapes and Wines.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Organic Acids.- 2.1 Total Titratable Acidity.- 2.2 Paper, Thin Layer and HPTLC Chromatography.- 2.3 Gas Chromatography.- 2.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.- 2.5 Isotachophoresis.- 2.6 Tartaric Acid.- 2.7 Succinic Acid.- 2.8 Malic Acid.- 2.9 Lactic Acid.- 2.10 Acetic Acid.- 2.11 Citric Acid.- 2.12 Uronic Acids.- 2.13 ?-Ketoacids.- 2.14 Fatty Acids.- 2.15 Ascorbic Acid.- 2.16 Other Acids.- 3 Amino Acids.- 3.1 Total ?-Amino Nitrogen.- 3.2 Paper Chromatographic.- 3.3 Automatic Amino Acid Analyses.- 3.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.- 3.5 Gas Chromatography.- 3.6 Proline.- 3.7 Arginine.- References.- Alcohols Derived from Sugars and Other Sources and Fullbodiedness of Wines.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Analytical Methods.- 3 Biochemistry of Alcohol and Polyol Formation, and Their Occurrence in Wines.- 3.1 Methanol.- 3.2 Ethanol.- 3.3 Alcohols Related to the Amino Acid Metabolism.- 3.4 Other Aliphatic Alcohols.- 3.5 Glycerol.- 3.6 Polyols in Musts and Wines.- 3.7 Inositol.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- Wine Phenols.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 General.- 1.2 Kinds, Amounts, and Sources of Phenols to Expect in Wines.- 2 Determination of Specific Individual Phenolic Substances.- 2.1 General, Nonchromatographic Analyses.- 2.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of Wine Phenols.- 2.3 Paper Chromatography of Wine Phenols.- 2.4 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) for Wine Phenol Analysis.- 2.5 Gas-Liquid Partition Chromatography (GLC) of Wine Phenols.- 2.6 Low Pressure Column Chromatography.- 3 Estimation of Phenols of Wines by Groups, Phenols Other than Flavonoids.- 3.1 “Nonflavonoids” - Phenols Other than Flavonoid Derivatives in Wines.- 4 Flavonoids in Grapes and Wines.- 4.1 Anthocyanins, the Most Important Phenols in Red Wines.- 4.2 Flavones, Flavanones, Flavonols, Flavanonols.- 4.3 Flavanols (Catechins) and Condensed Tannins.- 5 Total Phenols.- 5.1 Assays Based upon Oxidation.- 5.2 Total Phenol Analysis by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry.- 6 Phenol Grouping Analyses.- 6.1 Polarography.- 6.2 Titrimetry.- 6.3 Inorganic Complex Colorimetry.- 7 Concluding Comments and Multiple Comparisons.- References.- Phenolic Composition of Natural Wine Types.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Phenolic Components of Wine Grapes.- 3 Measurement of Total Wine Phenolics.- 3.1 Spectral Evaluation of White Wines.- 3.2 Total Phenolics in Red Wines.- 4 Phenolic Composition of White Wines.- 4.1 Hydroxycinnamates.- 4.2 Flavonoids.- 4.3 Pigments.- 5 The Colour of Red Wine.- 5.1 Residual Anthocyanins.- 5.2 Pigment Equilibria.- 5.3 Maturation and Ageing.- 6 Analytical Methods.- 6.1 Spectral.- 6.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).- 7 Summary.- References.- The Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation-NMR Method Applied to the Study of Wines.- 1 Stable Isotopes and Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation.- 1.1 Natural Isotope Distribution.- 1.2 Isotopic Filiation of Wines.- 2 Theoretical Bases of Isotopic Characterization.- 3 Experimental Techniques of Isotopic Characterization.- 3.1 Methodology of the SNIF-NMR Method.- 3.2 Experimental Conditions.- 4 Basic Mechanisms of Isotope Fractionation from Sugar Solutions to Fermented Alcohol-Water Mixtures.- 5 Isotope Fractionation as a Source of Information on Environmental Factors.- 6 The Control of Chaptalization and Watering of Wines.- 7 SNIF-NMR Applied to the Characterization of Natural Products and to the Study of Metabolism.- References.- Yeast and Bacterial Control in Winemaking.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Yeasts.- 2.1 Types, Selection, and Succession.- 2.2 Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.- 2.3 Use of Yeast Starter Cultures.- 2.4 Stuck Fermentations.- 2.5 Sterilization.- 2.6 Genetics.- 3 Bacteria.- 3.1 Acetic Acid Bacteria.- 3.2 Lactic Acid Bacteria.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- Detection of Illicit Spirits.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Major Volatile Congener Profiles.- 2.1 Volatile Congeners.- 2.2 Methods of Analysis.- 2.3 Identification of Spirits.- 2.4 Detection of Illicit Spirits.- 3 Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis.- 3.1 Limitations of Congener Profilling.- 3.2 Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis (SCIRA).- 3.3 Stable Hydrogen Isotope Ratio Analysis (SHIRA).- 3.4 Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratio Analysis.- 4 Trace Elements.- 5 Minor Organic Constituents of Illicit Spirits.- 6 Other Methods of Detection.- 7 Conclusion.- References.- Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in Grapes and Wines.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Free SO2.- 2.1 Iodiometric.- 2.2 Colorimetric.- 2.3 Aeration-Oxidation.- 2.4 Gas Sensing Electrodes.- 2.5 Polarographic.- 3 Total SO2.- 3.1 Iodiometric-Ripper.- 3.2 Aeration-Oxidation.- 3.3 Gas-Sensing Electrode and Polarographic.- 3.4 Direct Distillation.- 3.5 Pararosaniline.- 3.6 Continuous Flow.- 3.7 Enzymatic.- 4 Gas Chromatographic.- 5 Other Methods.- References.- Determination of Diethylene Glycol in Wine.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Use.- 1.2 Empirical Formula.- 1.3 Alternative Names.- 1.4 Preparation.- 1.5 Physical Characteristics.- 1.6 Toxicology.- 2 Methods of Analysis.- 2.1 Abstracts.- 2.2 Extented Form Methods of Analysis.- 3 Concluding Considerations.- References.