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Laws and Explanations; Theories and Modal Possibilities (Synthese Library, nr. 410)

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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 09 Sep 2019
The book has two parts: In the first, after a review of some seminal classical accounts of laws and explanations, a new account is proposed for distinguishing between laws and accidental generalizations (LAG). Among the new consequences of this proposal it is proved that any explanation of a contingent generalization shows that the generalization is not accidental. The second part involves physical theories, their modality, and their explanatory power. In particular, it is shown that (1) Each theory has a theoretical implication structure associated with it, such that there are new physical modal operators on these structures and also special modal entities that are in these structures. A special subset of the physical modals, the nomic modals are associated with the laws of theories. (2) The familiar idea that theories always explain laws by deduction of them has to be seriously modified in light of the fact that there are a host of physical theories (including for example, Newtonian Classical mechanics, Hamiltonian, and Lagrangian theory, and probability theory) that we believe are schematic (they do not have any truth value). Nevertheless, we think that there is a kind of non-deductive explanation and generality that they achieve by subsumtion under a schema.

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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9783030188450
ISBN-10: 3030188450
Pagini: 174
Dimensiuni: 155 x 235 mm
Ediția: 1st ed. 2019
Editura: Springer
Colecția Springer
Seria Synthese Library

Locul publicării: Cham, Switzerland

Cuprins

Part I: Appreciating and Burnishing the Past
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. C.Hempel:  In the beginning ....
Chapter 3. Laws and their corresponding counterfactuals; an untenable connection
Chapter 4. F.Dretske's Total rejection of the Hempel model. Universals and Magnitudes to the rescue
Chapter 5. Prelude to D.Armstrong: A mathematical movement which inspired Ramsey, and left Russell and Armstrong unmoved
Chapter 6. D.Armstrong's account of laws. Identity lost, regained, and lost again

Part II: The Relatvization of Laws to Theoretical scenarios, Schematic Theories and Physical and Nomic modals
Chapter 7. Laws and Accidental Generalizations. A new, minimal theory of the difference
Chapter 8. E.Nagel and R.B.Braithwaite. Two neglected radical and radically different theories: one inspired by Hilbert, the other by Ramsey
Chapter 9. D.Hilbert's Architectural structuralism, and Schematic Theories
Chapter 10. Theories, their magnitude spaces, and the  physical possibilities they provide
Chapter 11. Theories, laws, and nomic possibilities (modals)
Chapter 12. Schematic theories, subsumtion of laws, and non-accidental generalizations

Notă biografică

Philosophy Website (gc.cuny.edu) Philosophy and History of Science, logic and philosophy of mathematics, Bayard Cutting Traveling Fellow (Columbia University, Stanford, Cambridge UK), Ford Foundation Fellow (King's College, Cambridge UK), NEH Fellow (Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center CUNY).

Textul de pe ultima copertă

The book has two parts: In the first, after a review of some seminal classical accounts of laws and explanations, a new account is proposed for distinguishing between laws and accidental generalizations (LAG). Among the new consequences of this proposal it is proved that any explanation of a contingent generalization shows that the generalization is not accidental. The second part involves physical theories, their modality, and their explanatory power. In particular, it is shown that (1) Each theory has a theoretical implication structure associated with it, such that there are new physical modal operators on these structures and also special modal entities that are in these structures. A special subset of the physical modals, the nomic modals are associated with the laws of theories. (2) The familiar idea that theories always explain laws by deduction of them has to be seriously modified in light of the fact that there are a host of physical theories (including for example, Newtonian Classical mechanics, Hamiltonian, and Lagrangian theory, and probability theory) that we believe are schematic (they do not have any truth value). Nevertheless, we think that there is a kind of non-deductive explanation and generality that they achieve by subsumtion under a schema.


Caracteristici

Proposes several new theories concerning laws, explanation, physical theories, and modality
Shows that any contingent generalizations that is explained, is thereby not an accidental generalization
Explains how each physical theory is associated with a specific group of physical modal possibilities