Tax Research Techniques

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en Limba Engleză Carte Paperback – 26 May 2017
Tax Research Techniques provides a working knowledge of the methodology of implementation–based tax research. Drawing on the latest developments in online research, the authors reveal how to ask the right questions, organize the facts, locate and assess pertinent authority, and clearly communicate research findings.
The Trusted Research Training Manual for Over 30 Years
As tax laws and tax research methods have changed over the past three decades,Tax Research Techniques has been a trusted resource to guide students and practitioners alike to best practices for efficient tax research. This latest edition updates examples and illustrations to highlight changes in tax law and online tax research over the past several years.
Tax Research Techniques will sharpen your knowledge of these five key tax research procedures:
  • How to Get the Facts
  • How to Ask Expert Questions
  • How to Search for the Right Authority
  • How to Resolve the Question
  • How to Communicate Your Conclusions
New and updated sections reflect the continuously evolving advances in the technology of Web–based research.
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ISBN-13: 9781941651476
ISBN-10: 194165147X
Pagini: 288
Dimensiuni: 158 x 226 x 16 mm
Greutate: 0.42 kg
Ediția: 10th Edition
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Public țintă

CPAs, accounting students


Chapter 1: Tax Research in Perspective 1 Meaning of Research in General 2
Research for Implementation of Rules 2
Research for Policy Determination 6
Research for Advancement of Knowledge 7
Examples of Tax Research 7
Chapter 2: The Critical Role of Facts 11
The Importance of Facts to Tax Questions 11
Facts—Established and Anticipated 13
Compliance 14
Planning 17
Some Common Fact Questions 19
Fair Market Value 20
Reasonable Salaries 21
Casualty and Theft Losses 21
Gifts 22
Illustrative Fact Cases 22
Gifts or Income? 22
Deductible or Not? 31
Chapter 3: The Elusive Nature of Tax Questions 55
Initial Statement of the Question 56
Minimal Technical Competence 57
Intermediate Technical Competence 58
Extensive Technical Competence 60
Restatement of the Initial Question After Some Research 61
Dangers Inherent in Statements of Questions 62
A Comprehensive Example 63
Diagramming the Facts 64
First Questions Call for Additional Facts 65
The Authority 67
Additional Questions 69
More Authority 69
More Questions and More Facts 70
First Tentative Conclusions 71
More Questions, More Authority 72
The Final Question 76
Summary 77
Chapter 4: Identifying Appropriate Authority 79
Statutory Law: The Tax–Legislation Process 80
The Internal Revenue Code 82
Treaties 88
Administrative Law 90
Treasury Regulations 90
Revenue Rulings 94
Revenue Procedures 95
Notices and Announcements 96
Letter Rulings 97
Technical Advice Memoranda, Determination Letters, and Chief Counsel Advice 98
General Counsel Memoranda 99
Action on Decision 99
Judicial Interpretations 100
US Tax Court 101
US District Courts 104
US Court of Federal Claims 104
US Circuit Courts of Appeals 107
US Supreme Court 108
Special Tax Reporter Series 109
Editorial Information 109
Tax Research Services 110
Treatises 113
Tax Journals 113
Tax Newsletters 114
Summary 114
Chapter 5: Locating Appropriate Authority 115
Online Services 116
Search Strategies 117
Finding a Known Primary Authority 117
Using a Table of Contents to Locate Authority 121
Using an Index to Locate Editorial Information 133
Using a Keyword Search 137
Formulating a Search Request 137
Issues 138
Terms or Phrases 138
Logical Connectors 141
Proximity of Terms and Phrases 141
Scope 142
Combining Search Strategies 145
Validating Tax Law Authority 146
Citator Databases 147
Searching Citator Databases 147
Validating Administrative Authority 152
Chapter 6: Assessing and Applying Authority 155
The Law is Clear—The Facts Are Uncertain 156
The Facts Are Clear—The Law Is Questionable 158
Conflicting Statutes 158
Conflict Between a Statute and the Intent of a Statute 159
Conflicting Interpretations 160
The Facts Are Clear—The Law Is Incomplete 164
The Facts Are Clear—The Law Is Nonexistent 169
Standards for Recommending a Tax Return Position 169
Chapter 7: Communicating Tax Research 173
Internal Communications 174
Memo to the File 174
Leaving Tracks 176
External Communications 177
Client Letters 177
Protest Letters 181
Requests for Letter Rulings and Determination Letters 186
Chapter 8: Tax Research in the Closed–Fact Case: An Example 195
Chapter 9: Research Methodology for Tax Planning 233
Tax–Planning Considerations 234
Statutory Options 235
Client Constraints 235
Creativity 236
Tax–Planning Aids 236
Editorial Materials 236
Continuing Education 237
Tree Diagrams 238
A Tax–Planning Example 239
Stock Versus Asset Acquisition 241
Other Considerations 241
Five Corporate Reorganization Options 242
Summary 245
Tax–Planning Communications 246
Appendix A: Tax and Business Websites for Researchers, Advisers, and Students 249
Appendix B: Circular 230 Considerations 257
Circular 230 Disclaimers 258
For Additional Information 259
Index 261

Notă biografică

Robert L. Gardner, Ph.D., is a professor at the Robert J. Smith Professor of Accountancy, Marriott School of Accountancy, Brigham Young University
Dave N. Stewart, CPA, Ph.D., is a professor at Rachel Martin Professor of Accountancy, Marriott School of Accountancy, Brigham Young University
Ronald G. Worsham, Jr., CPA, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor, Marriott School of Accountancy, Brigham Young University