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Netter's Atlas of Human Embryology: Updated Edition (Netter Basic Science)

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en Limba Engleză Paperback – 27 Jul 2012

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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781455739776
ISBN-10: 1455739774
Pagini: 288
Ilustrații: Approx. 225 illustrations (225 in full color)
Dimensiuni: 216 x 276 x 17 mm
Greutate: 0.93 kg
Ediția: Revised.
Editura: Elsevier
Seria Netter Basic Science


Cuprins

Chapter 1
An Overview of Developmental Events, Processes, and Abnormalities . 1
The First and Second Weeks. 2
The Embryonic Period
The Early Embryonic Period. 3
The Late Embryonic Period. 4
The Fetal Period. 5
Histological Concepts
Samples of Epithelia and Connective Tissue . 6
Skin and Embryonic Connective Tissue. 7
Induction. 8
Apoptosis . 9
Segmentation and Early Pattern Formation
Genetic Determination of Embryonic Axes and Segments. 10
Segmentation and Segment Fates. 11
Cell Adhesion and Cell Migration. 12
Cell Differentiation and Cell Fates . 13
Growth Factors. 14
Classification of Abnormal Processes . 15
Classification of Multiple Anomalies. 16
Normal Versus Major Versus Minor Malformations . 17
Marfan Syndrome. 18
Apert and De Lange Syndromes. 19
Examples of Deformations . 20
Example of a Deformation Sequence . 21
Drug-Induced Embryopathies. 22
Terminology. 23
Chapter 2
Early Embryonic Development and the Placenta . 27
Adult Uterus, Ovaries, and Uterine Tubes . 28
Ovary, Ova, and Follicle Development . 29
The Menstrual Cycle and Pregnancy. 30
The First Week: .
Ovulation, Fertilization and Migration Down the Uterine Tube. 31
Ectopic Pregnancy. 32
Tubal Pregnancy. 33
Interstitial, Abdominal, and Ovarian Pregnancy. 34
The Second Week: .
Implantation and Extraembryonic Membrane Formation. 35
The Third Week: Gastrulation. 36
Events Related to Gastrulation:.
Neurulation and Early Placenta and Coelom Development . 37
The Fourth Week: Folding of the Gastrula . 38
The Vertebrate Body Plan. 39
Formation of the Placenta. 40
The Endometrium and Fetal Membranes. 41
Placental Structure . 42
External Placental Structure; Placental Membrane. 43
Placental Variations . 44
Placenta Previa. 45
Summary of Ectodermal Derivatives. 46
Summary of Endodermal Derivatives . 47
Summary of Mesodermal Derivatives. 48
Terminology. 49
Chapter 3
The Nervous System. 51
Formation of the Neural Plate. 52
Neurulation. 53
Neural Tube and Neural Crest . 54
Neural Tube Defects
Defects of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column. 55
Defects of the Brain and Skull. 56
Neuron Development. 57
Development of the Cellular Sheath of Axons . 58
Development of the Spinal Cord Layers. 59
Development of the Spinal Cord. 60
Peripheral Nervous System
Development of the Peripheral Nervous System. 61
Somatic Versus Splanchnic Nerves . 62
Growth of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column. 63
Embryonic Dermatomes. 64
Adult Dermatomes . 65
Development of the Brain
Early Brain Development. 66
Further Development of Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain. 67
Development of Major Brain Structures. 68
Growth of the Cerebral Hemispheres. 69
Derivatives of the Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain . 70
Development of the Forebrain
Forebrain Wall and Ventricles. 71
Relationship Between Telencephalon and Diencephalon . 72
Cross Sections of the Midbrain and Hindbrain. 73
Production of Cerebrospinal Fluid . 74
Development of Motor Nuclei in the Brainstem. 75
Segmentation of the Hindbrain. 76
Development of the Pituitary Gland. 77
Development of the Ventricles. 78
Congenital Ventricular Defects. 79
Terminology. 80
Chapter 4
The Cardiovascular System. 83
Early Vascular Systems. 84
Vein Development
Early Development of the Cardinal Systems . 85
Transformation to the Postnatal Pattern. 86
Vein Anomalies. 87
Aortic Arch Arteries . 88
Artery Anomalies
Aortic Arch Anomalies. 89
Anomalous Origins of the Pulmonary Arteries. 90
Intersegmental Arteries and Coarctation of the Aorta. 91
Summary of Embryonic Blood Vessel Derivatives. 92
Formation of Blood Vessels. 93
Formation of the Heart Tube
Formation of the Left and Right Heart Tubes. 94
Formation of a Single Heart Tube. 95
Chambers of the Heart Tube. 96
Bending of the Heart Tube. 97
Partitioning of the Heart Tube. 98
Atrial Separation. 99
Spiral (Aorticopulmonary) Septum . 100
Completion of the Spiral (Aorticopulmonary) Septum. 101
Ventricular Separation and Bulbus Cordis. 102
Adult Derivatives of the Heart Tube Chambers. 103
Fetal Circulation. 104
Transition to Postnatal Circulation . 105
Congenital Heart Defect Concepts. 106
Ventricular Septal Defects. 107
Atrial Septal Defects. 108
Spiral Septum Defects. 109
Patent Ductus Arteriosus. 110
Terminology. 111
Chapter 5
The Respiratory System. 113
Early Primordia. 114
Formation of the Pleural Cavities . 115
The Relationship Between Lungs and Pleural Cavities . 116
Visceral and Parietal Pleura . 117
Development of the Diaphragm. 118
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. 119
Airway Branching
The Airway at 4 to 7 Weeks. 120
The Airway at 7 to 10 Weeks. 121
Development of Bronchioles and Alveoli . 122
Bronchial Epithelium Maturation . 123
Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Airway. 124
Airway Branching Anomalies. 125
Bronchopulmonary Sequestration. 126
Palate Formation in the Upper Airway. 127
The Newborn Upper Airway. 128
Terminology. 129
Chapter 6
The Gastrointestinal System and Abdominal Wall . 131
Early Primordia. 132
Formation of the Gut Tube and Mesenteries. 133
Foregut, Midgut, and Hindgut. 134
Abdominal Veins . 135
Foregut and Midgut Rotations. 136
Meckel's Diverticulum . 137
Lesser Peritoneal Sac. 138
Introduction to the Retroperitoneal Concept. 139
Midgut Loop. 140
Abdominal Ligaments. 141
Abdominal Foregut Organ Development . 142
Development of Pancreatic Acini and Islets. 143
Congenital Pancreatic Anomalies. 144
Development of the Hindgut . 145
Congenital Anomalies
Duplication, Atresia, and Situs Inversus. 146
Megacolon (Hirschsprung's Disease). 147
Summary of Gut Organization . 148
Development of the Abdominal Wall. 149
Umbilical Hernia . 150
The Inguinal Region. 151
Anterior Testis Descent. 152
The Adult Inguinal Region . 153
Anomalies of the Processus Vaginalis. 154
Terminology. 155
Chapter 7
The Urogenital System. 157
Early Primordia. 158
Division of the Cloaca . 159
Congenital Cloacal Anomalies . 160
Pronephros, Mesonephros, and Metanephros. 161
Development of the Metanephros. 162
Ascent and Rotation of the Metanephric Kidneys. 163
Kidney Rotation and Migration Anomalies
Kidney Rotation Anomalies and Renal Fusion. 164
Kidney Migration Anomalies and Blood Vessel Formation . 165
Hypoplasia. 166
Ureteric Bud Duplication. 167
Ectopic Ureters. 168
Bladder Anomalies. 169
Allantois/Urachus Anomalies . 170
Primordia of the Genital System. 171
8-Week Undifferentiated (Indifferent) Stage . 172
Anterior View of the Derivatives. 173
Paramesonephric Duct Anomalies . 174
Homologues of the External Genital Organs. 175
Hypospadias and Epispadias. 176
Gonadal Differentiation . 177
Testis, Epididymis, and Ductus Deferens . 178
Descent of Testis. 179
Ova and Follicles. 180
Summary of Urogenital Primordia and Derivatives. 181
Summary of Genital Primordia and Derivatives . 182
Terminology. 183
Chapter 8
The Musculoskeletal System. 185
Myotomes, Dermatomes, and Sclerotomes. 186
Muscle and Vertebral Column Segmentation . 187
Mesenchymal Primordia at 5 and 6 Weeks . 188
Ossi?cation of the Vertebral Column. 189
Development of the Atlas, Axis, Ribs, and Sternum. 190
Bone Cells and Bone Deposition . 191
Histology of Bone. 192
Membrane Bone and Skull Development. 193
Bone Development in Mesenchyme. 194
Osteon Formation. 195
Compact Bone Development and Remodeling. 196
Endochondral Ossi?cation in a Long Bone. 197
Epiphyseal Growth Plate
Epiphyseal Growth Plate. 198
Peripheral Cartilage Function in the Epiphysis. 199
Structure and Function of the Growth Plate. 200
Pathophysiology of the Growth Plate. 201
Ossification in the Newborn Skeleton. 202
Joint Development . 203
Muscular System: Primordia. 204
Segmentation and Division of Myotomes. 205
Epimere, Hypomere, and Muscle Groups. 206
Development and Organization of Limb Buds. 207
Rotation of the Limbs. 208
Limb Rotation and Dermatomes. 209
Embryonic Plan of the Brachial Plexus. 210
Divisions of the Lumbosacral Plexus. 211
Developing Skeletal Muscles . 212
Terminology. 213
Chapter 9
Head and Neck. 215
Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Mesoderm. 216
Pharyngeal (Branchial) Arches . 217
Ventral and Midsagittal Views . 218
Fate of the Pharyngeal Pouches . 219
Midsagittal View of the Pharynx. 220
Fate of the Pharyngeal Grooves . 221
Pharyngeal Groove and Pouch Anomalies. 222
Pharyngeal Arch Nerves. 223
Sensory Innervation Territories. 224
Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles
Early Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles. 225
Later Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles. 226
Pharyngeal Arch Cartilages. 227
Ossi?cation of the Skull . 228
Premature Suture Closure. 230
Cervical Ossi?cation. 231
Torticollis . 232
Cervical Plexus. 233
Orbit. 234
Ear Development . 235
Adult Ear Organization. 236
Summary of Ear Development . 237
Cranial Nerve Primordia. 238
Cranial Nerve Neuron Components. 239
Parasympathetic Innervation and Unique Nerves. 240
Development of the Face
Development of the Face: 3 to 4 Weeks. 241
Development of the Face: 4 to 6 Weeks. 242
Development of the Face: 6 to 10 Weeks. 243
Palate Formation
Palate Formation. 244
Interior View of Palate Formation; Roof of Oral Cavity. 245
Congenital Anomalies of the Oral Cavity. 246
Floor of the Oral Cavity . 247
Developmental Coronal Sections . 248
Tooth Structure and Development . 249
Dental Eruption. 250
Terminology. 251