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Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering (Bestsellers cărți Electronică)

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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 11 Sep 2009

Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems "Henry Ott has literally ′written the book′ on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others."
EE Times
Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott′s popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction¿and their practical applications to the design of analog and digital circuits in computer, home entertainment, medical, telecom, industrial process control, and automotive equipment, as well as military and aerospace systems.
While maintaining and updating the core information such as cabling, grounding, filtering, shielding, digital circuit grounding and layout, and ESD that made the previous book such a wide success, this new book includes additional coverage of:

 

  • Equipment/systems grounding
  • Switching power supplies and variable–speed motor drives
  • Digital circuit power distribution and decoupling
  • PCB layout and stack–up
  • Mixed–signal PCB layout
  • RF and transient immunity
  • Power line disturbances
  • Precompliance EMC measurements
  • New appendices on dipole antennae, the theory of partial inductance, and the ten most common EMC problems

The concepts presented are applicable to analog and digital circuits operating from below audio frequencies to those in the GHz range. Throughout the book, an emphasis is placed on cost–effective EMC designs, with the amount and complexity of mathematics kept to the strictest minimum.
Complemented with over 250 problems with answers, Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering equips readers with the knowledge needed to design electronic equipment that is compatible with the electromagnetic environment and compliant with national and international EMC regulations. It is an essential resource for practicing engineers who face EMC and regulatory compliance issues and an ideal textbook for EE courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.

 

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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9780470189306
ISBN-10: 0470189304
Pagini: 872
Ilustrații: Illustrations
Dimensiuni: 160 x 241 x 46 mm
Greutate: 1.30 kg
Ediția: Revised
Editura: Wiley
Seria Bestsellers cărți Electronică

Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Public țintă

Design engineers in the electronics industry students in EMC, students on EE courses.

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems "Henry Ott has literally ′written the book′ on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others."
EE Times
Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott′s popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction?and their practical applications to the design of analog and digital circuits in computer, home entertainment, medical, telecom, industrial process control, and automotive equipment, as well as military and aerospace systems.
While maintaining and updating the core information such as cabling, grounding, filtering, shielding, digital circuit grounding and layout, and ESD that made the previous book such a wide success, this new book includes additional coverage of:

 

  • Equipment/systems grounding
  • Switching power supplies and variable–speed motor drives
  • Digital circuit power distribution and decoupling
  • PCB layout and stack–up
  • Mixed–signal PCB layout
  • RF and transient immunity
  • Power line disturbances
  • Precompliance EMC measurements
  • New appendices on dipole antennae, the theory of partial inductance, and the ten most common EMC problems

The concepts presented are applicable to analog and digital circuits operating from below audio frequencies to those in the GHz range. Throughout the book, an emphasis is placed on cost–effective EMC designs, with the amount and complexity of mathematics kept to the strictest minimum.
Complemented with over 250 problems with answers, Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering equips readers with the knowledge needed to design electronic equipment that is compatible with the electromagnetic environment and compliant with national and international EMC regulations. It is an essential resource for practicing engineers who face EMC and regulatory compliance issues and an ideal textbook for EE courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.

 


Cuprins

Preface xxiii
PART 1 EMC THEORY 1
1. Electromagnetic Compatibility 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Noise and Interference 3
1.3 Designing for Electromagnetic Compatibility 4
1.4 Engineering Documentation and EMC 6
1.5 United States EMC Regulations 6
1.6 Canadian EMC Requirements 19
1.7 European Union s EMC Requirements 20
1.8 International Harmonization 26
1.9 Military Standards 27
1.10 Avionics 28
1.11 The Regulatory Process 30
1.12 Typical Noise Path 30
1.13 Methods of Noise Coupling 31
1.14 Miscellaneous Noise Sources 33
1.15 Use of Network Theory 36
Summary 38
Problems 39
References 41
Further Reading 42
2. Cabling 44
2.1 Capacitive Coupling 45
2.2 Effect of Shield on Capacitive Coupling 48
2.3 Inductive Coupling 52
2.4 Mutual Inductance Calculations 54
2.5 Effect of Shield on Magnetic Coupling 56
2.6 Shielding to Prevent Magnetic Radiation 64
2.7 Shielding a Receptor Against Magnetic Fields 67
2.8 Common Impedance Shield Coupling 69
2.9 Experimental Data 70
2.10 Example of Selective Shielding 74
2.11 Shield Transfer Impedance 75
2.12 Coaxial Cable Versus Twisted Pair 75
2.13 Braided Shields 79
2.14 Spiral Shields 81
2.15 Shield Terminations 84
2.16 Ribbon Cables 94
2.17 Electrically Long Cables 96
Summary 96
Problems 98
References 103
Further Reading 104
3. Grounding 106
3.1 AC Power Distribution and Safety Grounds 107
3.2 Signal Grounds 120
3.3 Equipment/System Grounding 132
3.4 Ground Loops 142
3.5 Low–Frequency Analysis of Common–Mode Choke 147
3.6 High–Frequency Analysis of Common–Mode Choke 152
3.7 Single Ground Reference for a Circuit 154
Summary 155
Problems 156
References 157
Further Reading 157
4. Balancing and Filtering 158
4.1 Balancing 158
4.2 Filtering 174
4.3 Power Supply Decoupling 178
4.4 Driving Capacitive Loads 186
4.5 System Bandwidth 188
4.6 Modulation and Coding 190
Summary 190
Problems 191
References 192
Further Reading 193
5. Passive Components 194
5.1 Capacitors 194
5.2 Inductors 203
5.3 Transformers 204
5.4 Resistors 206
5.5 Conductors 208
5.6 Transmission Lines 215
5.7 Ferrites 225
Summary 233
Problems 234
References 237
Further Reading 237
6. Shielding 238
6.1 Near Fields and Far Fields 238
6.2 Characteristic and Wave Impedances 241
6.3 Shielding Effectiveness 243
6.4 Absorption Loss 245
6.5 Reflection Loss 249
6.6 Composite Absorption and Reflection Loss 257
6.7 Summary of Shielding Equations 260
6.8 Shielding with Magnetic Materials 260
6.9 Experimental Data 265
6.10 Apertures 267
6.11 Waveguide Below Cutoff 280
6.12 Conductive Gaskets 282
6.13 The IDEAL Shield 287
6.14 Conductive Windows 288
6.15 Conductive Coatings 289
6.16 Internal Shields 293
6.17 Cavity Resonance 295
6.18 Grounding of Shields 296
Summary 296
Problems 297
References 299
Further Reading 300
7. Contact Protection 302
7.1 Glow Discharges 302
7.2 Metal–Vapor or Arc Discharges 303
7.3 AC Versus DC Circuits 305
7.4 Contact Material 306
7.5 Contact Rating 306
7.6 Loads with High Inrush Currents 307
7.7 Inductive Loads 308
7.8 Contact Protection Fundamentals 310
7.9 Transient Suppression for Inductive Loads 314
7.10 Contact Protection Networks for Inductive Loads 318
7.11 Inductive Loads Controlled by a Transistor Switch 322
7.12 Resistive Load Contact Protection 323
7.13 Contact Protection Selection Guide 323
7.14 Examples 324
Summary 325
Problems 326
References 327
Further Reading 327
8. Intrinsic Noise Sources 328
8.1 Thermal Noise 328
8.2 Characteristics of Thermal Noise 332
8.3 Equivalent Noise Bandwidth 334
8.4 Shot Noise 337
8.5 Contact Noise 338
8.6 Popcorn Noise 339
8.7 Addition of Noise Voltages 340
8.8 Measuring Random Noise 341
Summary 342
Problems 343
References 345
Further Reading 345
9. Active Device Noise 346
9.1 Noise Factor 346
9.2 Measurement of Noise Factor 349
9.3 Calculating S/N Ratio and Input Noise Voltage from Noise Factor 351
9.4 Noise Voltage and Current Model 353
9.5 Measurment of Vn and In 355
9.6 Calculating Noise Factor and S/N Ratio from Vn In 356
9.7 Optimum Source Resistance 357
9.8 Noise Factor of Cascaded Stages 360
9.9 Noise Temperature 362
9.10 Bipolar Transistor Noise 364
9.11 Field–Effect Transistor Noise 368
9.12 Noise in Operational Amplifiers 370
Summary 375
Problems 376
References 377
Further Reading 378
10. Digital Circuit Grounding 379
10.1 Frequency Versus Time Domain 380
10.2 Analog Versus Digital Circuits 380
10.3 Digital Logic Noise 380
10.4 Internal Noise Sources 381
10.5 Digital Circuit Ground Noise 384
10.6 Ground Plane Current Distribution and Impedance 391
10.7 Digital Logic Current Flow 412
Summary 419
Problems 420
References 421
Further Reading 422
PART 2 EMC APPLICATIONS 423
11. Digital Circuit Power Distribution 425
11.1 Power Supply Decoupling 425
11.2 Transient Power Supply Currents 426
11.3 Decoupling Capacitors 431
11.4 Effective Decoupling Strategies 436
11.5 The Effect of Decoupling on Radiated Emissions 454
11.6 Decoupling Capacitor Type and Value 456
11.7 Decoupling Capacitor Placement and Mounting 457
11.8 Bulk Decoupling Capacitors 459
11.9 Power Entry Filters 460
Summary 461
Problems 461
References 463
Further Reading 463
12. Digital Circuit Radiation 464
12.1 Differential–Mode Radiation 465
12.2 Controlling Differential–Mode Radiation 471
12.3 Common–Mode Radiation 477
12.4 Controlling Common–Mode Radiation 480
Summary 488
Problems 489
References 490
Further Reading 491
13. Conducted Emissions 492
13.1 Power Line Impedance 492
13.2 Switched–Mode Power Supplies 495
13.3 Power–Line Filters 511
13.4 Primary–to–Secondary Common–Mode Coupling 523
13.5 Frequency Dithering 524
13.6 Power Supply Instability 524
13.7 Magnetic Field Emissions 525
13.8 Variable Speed Motor Drives 528
13.9 Harmonic Suppression 536
Summary 541
Problems 542
References 544
Further Reading 544
14. RF and Transient Immunity 545
14.1 Performance Criteria 545
14.2 RF Immunity 546
14.3 Transient Immunity 557
14.4 Power Line Disturbances 572
Summary 575
Problems 576
References 578
Further Reading 579
15. Electrostatic Discharge 580
15.1 Static Generation 580
15.2 Human Body Model 587
15.3 Static Discharge 589
15.4 ESD Protection in Equipment Design 592
15.5 Preventing ESD Entry 594
15.6 Hardening Sensitive Circuits 608
15.7 ESD Grounding 608
15.8 Nongrounded Products 609
15.9 Field–Induced Upset 610
15.10 Transient Hardened Software Design 612
15.11 Time Windows 617
Summary 617
Problems 619
References 620
Further Reading 621
16. PCB Layout and Stackup 622
16.1 General PCB Layout Considerations 622
16.2 PCB–to–Chassis Ground Connection 625
16.3 Return Path Discontinuities 626
16.4 PCB Layer Stackup 635
Summary 655
Problems 657
References 658
Further Reading 658
17. Mixed–Signal PCB Layout 660
17.1 Split Ground Planes 660
17.2 Microstrip Ground Plane Current Distribution 662
17.3 Analog and Digital Ground Pins 665
17.4 When Should Split Ground Planes Be Used? 668
17.5 Mixed Signal ICs 669
17.6 High–Resolution A/D and D/A Converters 671
17.7 A/D and D/A Converter Support Circuitry 676
17.8 Vertical Isolation 679
17.9 Mixed–Signal Power Distribution 681
17.10 The IPC Problem 684
Summary 685
Problems 686
References 687
Further Reading 687
18. Precompliance EMC Measurements 688
18.1 Test Environment 689
18.2 Antennas Versus Probes 689
18.3 Common–Mode Currents on Cables 690
18.4 Near Field Measurements 694
18.5 Noise Voltage Measurements 697
18.6 Conducted Emission Testing 700
18.7 Spectrum Analyzers 707
18.8 EMC Crash Cart 711
18.9 One–Meter Radiated Emission Measurements 713
18.10 Precompliance Immunity Testing 717
18.11 Precompliance Power Quality Tests 723
18.12 Margin 726
Summary 728
Problems 729
References 730
Further Reading 731
APPENDIX 733
A. The Decibel 733
A.1 Properties of Logarithms 733
A.2 Using the Decibel for Other than Power Measurements 734
A.3 Power Loss or Negative Power Gain 736
A.4 Absolute Power Level 736
A.5 Summing Powers Expressed in Decibels 738
B. The Ten Best Ways to Maximize the Emission from Your Product 740
C. Multiple Reflections of Magnetic Fields in Thin Shields 743
D. Dipoles for Dummies 746
D.1 Basic Dipoles for Dummies 746
D.2 Intermediate Dipoles for Dummies 751
D.3 Advanced Dipoles for Dummies 756
Summary 763
Further Reading 764
E. Partial Inductance 765
E.1 Inductance 765
E.2 Loop Inductance 767
E.3 Partial Inductance 770
E.4 Ground Plane Inductance Measurement Test Setup 780
E.5 Inductance Notation 785
Summary 788
References 788
Further Reading 789
F. Answers to Problems 790
Index 825


Recenzii

"This is an outstanding book. At 872 pages thick, it is a valuable follow–up to Ott′s earlier books, Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems (first edition, 1975; second edition, 1987) . . . EMC will remain with us in the foreseeable future, and we need books like this one." (The Radio Science Bulletin, 1 June 2011)  

Notă biografică

Henry W. Ott is President and Principal Consultant of Henry Ott Consultants, an EMC/ESD training and consulting organization located in Livingston, New Jersey. Mr. Ott is considered by many to be the nation′s leading EMC educator.