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Buddhisms: An Introduction

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en Limba Engleză Paperback – 11 Aug 2015
"Exemplary for its organization and writing, this work is likely to become the standard single-volume text on Buddhism for the student, whether within the walls of the academy or without.”
—Starred Review, Library Journal


Buddhisms: An Introduction represents a novel way of presenting the whole of the Buddhist tradition in its unity and multiplicity. Clear in its explanations, replete with tables and suggestions for further reading, it should appeal to students, yet also be of interest to scholars for some of its ways of viewing the Buddha, his teachings, and the Buddhist community through the ages.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781780745053
ISBN-10: 1780745052
Pagini: 496
Ilustrații: illustrations
Dimensiuni: 152 x 235 x 38 mm
Greutate: 0.64 kg
Editura: Oneworld Publications
Colecția Oneworld Publications
Locul publicării: United Kingdom

Recenzii

"Deftly selecting material from a vast tradition, Strong guides the reader through complex topics with precision, clarity, and insight, aided by tables presenting more abstruse information. Particularly cogent are his analyses of long-debated subjects such as karma, non-self, and approaches to enlightenment (practice/study, gradual/sudden). He includes topics related to women in Buddhism throughout.... Readers eager to dive into a rigorous, well-organized investigation of Buddhism's intricate 2500-year-old history will find much to reward them."
—Publishers Weekly

"Strong (religious studies, Bates Coll.) is well qualified to discuss Buddhism, having authored The Buddha and The Experience of Buddhism, among other titles. This substantial study is a near-comprehensive digest of the history of Buddhism in its multiple forms, from its origins in India to its variants in Thailand, Japan, and Tibet. Strong’s exhaustive account is doubtless intended as a textbook, yet it is also gratifying and accessible to all readers as it includes the lives (real and legendary) of Gautama Buddha, also known as Sakyamuni, as well as discussions of early monastic communities and clear expositions of most Buddhist doctrines. The latter part of the title focuses on several variants of Buddhism and contains chronologies of the tradition throughout Asia. VERDICT Exemplary for its organization and writing, this work is likely to become the standard single-volume text on Buddhism for the student, whether within the walls of the academy or without.”
— Starred Review, Library Journal

"Recommended .... Strong’s exhaustive study of Buddhisms is both accessible and informative. The volume’s greatest strength is the vast detail and breadth of Buddhism that it manages to cover while preserving a sense of what makes Buddhism what it is across a variety of geographic and temporal ranges. The breadth of the book notwithstanding, Strong (philosophy and religion, Bates College) does well to express the personal experience of Buddhism, and it is clear that this work is the result of decades of research. He opens with the modern day temple setting before moving to the root story of the experience of Sakyamuni (the Buddha). Having provided this background, the author proceeds to explain the process of institutionalization of the tradition and the various teachings. This serves as a beautiful transition to explaining the varieties of Buddhist expression in later developments in Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions outside the Indian context. By limiting the volume's scope to the Asian context, Strong is able to focus on some key elements of the religious tradition and its development."
—CHOICE Magazine, from the American Library Association

Notă biografică

John S. Strong is the Charles A. Dana Professor of Religion, Bates College, in Maine. Specializing in history of religions, Asian religions, and Buddhist Studies, with a focus on Buddhist legendary and cultic traditions in India and South Asia. He is the author of numerous books and articles including The Buddha: A Beginner’s Guide (Oneworld).

Cuprins

Preface

Schemes and Themes

Technicalities

Note on abbreviations

Chapter 1 Introduction: Lumbini, a Buddhist World Exposition

1.1 Theravada and Mahayana

1.2 Lumbini's Eastern Monastic Zone: South and Southeast Asian Traditions

1.2.1 The Maha Bodhi Society

1.2.2 The Sri Lanka Monastery

1.2.3 The Gautami Center for Nuns

1.2.4 Myanmar (Burma)

1.2.5 Meditation Centers

1.3 Lumbini's Western Monastic Zone: East Asian Traditions

1.3.1 China

1.3.2 Korea

1.3.3 Japan

1.3.4 Vietnam

1.4 Lumbini's Western Monastic Zone: Tibetan Vajrayana Traditions

1.4.1 The Great Lotus Stupa

1.4.2 The Lumbini Udyana Mahachaitya



Part I: Foundations of the Triple Gem: Buddha/s, Dharma/s, and Saṃgha/s

Chapter 2 Sakyamuni, Lives and Legends

2.1 The Historical Buddha

2.2 The Buddha's World

2.3 The Buddha of Story

2.4 Past Buddhas and the Biographical Blueprint

2.5 The Start of Sakyamuni's Career

2.6 Previous Lives (Jatakas)

2.6.1 The Donkey in the Lion's Skin

2.6.2 Vessantara Jataka

2.6.3 The Tigress Jataka

2.7 A Lifestory of Sakyamuni

2.7.1 Birth and Childhood

2.7.2 Life in the Palace

2.7.3 The Beginnings of Discontent

2.7.4 The Great Departure

2.7.5 Paths Not Taken

2.7.6 Awakening

2.7.7 After Enlightenment

2.7.8 The First Sermon

2.7.9 Various Conversions and Miracles

2.7.10 Death and Parinirvaṇa

Chapter 3 Overcoming the Buddha's Absence

3.1 Seeing the Buddha in the Dharma

3.1.1 Excursus on the Buddhist Canon/s

3.2 Places of Pilgrimage

3.3 Relics

3.4 Buddha Images

3.5 The Masters of the Dharma

3.6 The Arhat Dharma-Protectors

3.7 Meeting Maitreya

Chapter 4 Some Permutations of the Middle Way

4.1 The Middle Way

4.2 Karma and Saṃsara

4.2.1 Why Do Good Deeds?

4.2.2 Contexts of Karma I: Neither Free Will nor Determinism

4.2.3 Contexts of Karma II: Both Jain and Upani?adic Views

4.3 The Doctrine of Non-Self (Anatman)

4.3.1 Breaking Down the False Sense of Self: the Five Aggregates and Impermanence

4.3.2 The Elements (Dharmas)

4.3.3 Countering the Breakdown of Self: Personal Continuity

4.3.4 Explications of Continuity: Pseudo-Selves and Ersatz Atmans

4.4 Summary

Chapter 5 The Four Truths

5.1 The First Truth: Stress

5.2 The Second Truth: the Continual Arising of Stress and Interdependent Origination

5.2.1 The Double Bind of Saṃsara

5.3 The Third Truth: the Cessation of Stress ? Nirvaṇa

5.4 The Fourth Truth: the Path to the Cessation of Stress

5.4.1 Moral Discipline

5.4.2 Meditation

5.4.3 Wisdom

5.5 Other Systematizations of the Path

5.5.1 The Seven Factors Conducive to Enlightenment

5.5.2 The Graduated Training

5.5.3 The Four Divine Abidings

5.5.4 The Four Fruits of the Path

5.6 Summary

Chapter 6 The Establishment and Character of the Early Buddhist Community

6.1 Monastic?Lay Interactions

6.1.1 Dana (Giving) and Other Forms of Making Merit

6.1.2 Lay Ethics

6.1.3 Magical Protection

6.1.4 Laypersons and the Monastic Rules

6.1.5 Royal Supporters

6.1.6 King Asoka

6.2 The Monastics: Wandering and Settling

6.2.1 Monastic Lifestyles

6.2.2 Monasteries

6.3 Mahaprajapati and the Establishment of the Order of Nuns

6.4 Common Moral Commitments

6.5 Initiation Rituals: Wandering Forth and Ordination

6.6 Monastic Rules

6.6.1 The Elaboration of the Disciplinary Code

6.6.2 Enforcement of the Rules: Pratimok?a Recitation and Pravaraṇa

6.7 Some Exemplary Disciples of the Buddha

6.7.1 Sariputra and Maudgalyayana

6.7.2 Pa?acara

6.7.3 The Laypersons Nakulapitṛ and Nakulamatṛ

6.7.4 Visakha, Preeminent Laywoman

6.8 Summary

Chapter 7 Visions and Divisions of the Saṃgha

7.1 Council Stories

7.1.1 The Council at Rajagṛha

7.1.2 Vinaya Disputes: the Council of Vaisali

7.1.3 The Councils of Pa?aliputra

7.1.4 Other Council Traditions

7.2 The Flowering of Mainstream Factionalism

7.3 Other Divisional Issues

7.3.1 Practice vs. Study

7.3.2 Meditators and Merit Makers

7.3.3 Forest Monks and Town Monks

7.3.4 The Question of Asceticism

7.3.5 The Question of Bon-Vivant Monks

7.3.6 Sect vs. Sect

7.4 The Origins of the Mahayana

7.5 Proliferation of Mahayana Schools

7.5.1 Mahayana Schools in India

7.5.2 Mahayana Schools in China

7.5.3 Mahayana Schools in Japan

7.5.4 Mahayana Schools in Tibet

7.6 Summary



Part II: Further Elaborations of the Triple Gem

Chapter 8 Mahayana and Vajrayana Ways of Meeting the Buddha/s

8.1 Changes in the View of the Buddha: the Lotus Sutra and Sakyamuni's Lifespan

8.2 Three Bodies of the Buddha/s

8.3 Meeting the Buddha/s in Their Pure Lands

8.3.1 Ak?obhya

8.3.2 Bhai?ajyaguru

8.4 Amitabha

8.4.1 Meeting Amitabha through Visualization

8.4.2 Rebirth in the Pure Land

8.5 Meeting the Buddha in the Great Bodhisattvas

8.5.1 Avalokitesvara

8.5.2 Other Great Bodhisattvas

8.6 Meeting the Buddha/s in the Vajrayana

8.6.1 Maṇ?alas and the Five Tathagatas

8.6.2 Ritual Consecration (Abhi?eka)

8.6.3 Merging with the Buddha

8.6.4 Visions: Meeting the Buddha/s in Bardo

8.6.5 Buddha Embodiments in This World: Gurus and Tülkus

8.7 Summary

Chapter 9 Mahayana Doctrinal Developments

9.1 Emptiness: the Selflessness of Dharmas

9.2 Nagarjuna and the Madhyamaka

9.3 The Expansion of Provisional Truth: Expedient Means (Upaya)

9.4 Tiantai Doctrines

9.5 The Ongoing Dialectic: the Yogacara School

9.5.1 Asanga and Vasubandhu and the Development of the School

9.5.2 Yogacara Doctrines

9.6 Avataṃsaka Doctrines

9.6.1 Applications of Interpenetration

9.7 The Buddha Womb/Embryo (Tathagatagarbha) Teachings

9.7.1 Resurgence of the True Self

9.8 Buddha-Nature Controversies

9.8.1 Limitations to the Buddha-Nature: the Icchantika Debate

9.8.2 The End of the Dharma

9.8.3 Expansions of the Buddha-Nature Doctrine

9.9 Summary

Chapter 10 The Bodhisattva Path, Tantra, and Zen

10.1 The Bodhisattva Path

10.2 Sudden and Gradual

10.2.1 Disagreements over the Nature of the Path: the Debate at Samyé

10.2.2 Disagreements over the Nature of Enlightenment

10.3 Graduated Paths

10.3.1 Compassion and Bodhicitta

10.3.2 The Stages of the Path, the Perfections, the Five Paths

10.3.3 Routinization and Ritualization

10.4 Path Shortcuts

10.5 Tantra

10.5.1 Uniting the Poles

10.5.2 Tantric Physiology

10.5.3 Mahamudra and Dzokchen (Rdzogs chen)

10.6 Direct Experiences: Chan/Zen

10.6.1 Koans

10.6.2 Critical Phrases (Huatou)

10.7 Summary

Chapter 11 Saṃgha Situations: Places, Persons, and Practices in Thai Buddhism/s

11.1 Buddhism in Thailand

11.2 Thai Monastic Life: Temporary Ordination

11.2.1 Life as a Novice

11.2.2 Experiences as a Monk

11.3 The Lives of Two Charismatic Thai Monks

11.3.1 Acharn Mun

11.3.2 Khruba Siwichai

11.4 The End of the Rains-Retreat in a Northern Thai Village

11.5 A Thai Temple in Wimbledon, England

Chapter 12 Saṃgha Situations: Places, Persons, and Practices in Japanese Buddhism/s

12.1 The Hexagonal Hall (Rokkakudo)

12.1.1 Prince Shotoku

12.1.2 Shinran

12.1.3 Kannon, Jizo, and Fudo

12.2 The Ritual Year at Shinnyodo

12.2.1 New Year's

12.2.2 ?akini and the Recitation of the Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra

12.2.3 Main Hall Rituals

12.2.4 Goma

12.2.5 The Killing Stone

12.3 The Ryoanji Rock Garden

12.4 The Buddha's Birthday at the Morgan Bay Zendo

12.5 The Japan Temple in Lumbini

12.6 Conclusion

Chapter 13 Saṃgha Situations: Places, Persons, and Practices in Tibetan Buddhism/s

13.1 Lhasa Jokhang

13.1.1 Pinning Down the Demoness

13.1.2 Flood Control

13.1.3 Grand Prostrations

10.1.4 The Great Prayer Festival

13.2 The Potala and the Dalai Lamas

13.2.1 Finding a New Dalai Lama

13.3 Scholars and Mad Saints

13.3.1 Drepung Monastery and Monastic Studies

13.3.2 Mad Monks: the Case of Tangtong Gyalpo

13.4 Samding: Female Incarnations and a Contemporary Buddhist

13.5 A Tibetan Dharma Center in Vermont, U.S.A.

13.6 Conclusion



Appendices

Appendix A: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in India

Appendix B: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in Sri Lanka

Appendix C: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in Myanmar (Burma)

Appendix D: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in Cambodia

Appendix E: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in Thailand

Appendix F: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in China

Appendix G: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in Japan

Appendix H: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in Vietnam

Appendix I: A Short Chronology of Buddhism in Tibet



Bibliography of Works Cited

Index