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Taphonomy of Human Remains: Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment

Editat de Eline M. J. Schotsmans, Nicholas Márquez–Grant, Shari L. Forbes
Notă GoodReads:
en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 31 Mar 2017
A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science


  • Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work
  • Includes case studies
  • Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, prehistory and anthropology
  • Combines points of view from both established practitioners and young researchers to ensure relevance
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781118953327
ISBN-10: 1118953320
Pagini: 542
Dimensiuni: 198 x 250 x 30 mm
Greutate: 1.07 kg
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Chichester, United Kingdom

Cuprins

List of Contributors xix
Notes on Contributors xxvii
Foreword xxix
Acknowledgements xxxi
Introduction 1
Eline M.J. Schotsmans, Nicholas Márquez–Grant and Shari L. Forbes
I.1 Efremov: from Taphonomy to Science Fiction 1
I.2 The Meaning of Taphonomy 2
I.3 The Rationale Behind this Volume 3
I.4 Challenges in Forensic Taphonomy 4
I.5 Organisation of the Volume 6
References 7
Part I General Post–Mortem Processes: Degradation of Soft Tissue, Bone and Associated Materials 9
1 Gross Post–Mortem Changes in the Human Body 11
Stuart J. Hamilton and Michael A. Green
1.1 Introduction 11
1.2 The Immediate Post–Mortem Period 11
1.3 Subsequent Weeks 16
1.4 Other Post–Mortem Modifications 16
1.5 Skeletonisation 22
1.6 Conclusion and Future Research 22
References 23
Cited court cases 25
2 Microscopic Post–Mortem Changes: the Chemistry of Decomposition 26
Shari L. Forbes, Katelynn A. Perrault and Jenna L. Comstock
2.1 Introduction 26
2.2 Autolysis 27
2.3 Putrefaction 27
2.4 Factors Affecting Autolysis and Putrefaction 31
2.5 Impact of the Decomposition Process on the Surrounding Environment 32
2.6 Conclusion 35
References 35
3 Profiling Volatile Organic Compounds of Decomposition 39
Pierre–Hugues Stefanuto, Elien Rosier, Jan Tytgat, Jean–François Focant and Eva Cuypers
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Matrices and Sampling Methods 40
3.3 Results and Discussion 46
3.4 Conclusion and Future Research 49
References 50
4 Blood Degradation and Bloodstain Age Estimation 53
Gerda J. Edelman and Maurice C.G. Aalders
4.1 Introduction: Forensic relevance of bloodstains 53
4.2 Blood Degradation 54
4.3 Mechanical and Morphological Changes 55
4.4 Optical Methods 55
4.5 Practical Implementation 59
4.6 Crime Scene Challenges of Bloodstain Age Estimation 60
4.7 Conclusion 62
References 62
5 DNA Degradation: Current Knowledge and Progress in DNA Analysis 65
Claudio Ottoni, Bram Bekaert and Ronny Decorte
5.1 Introduction 65
5.2 Mechanisms of DNA Degradation 65
5.3 Preservation of DNA: Recommendations Concerning Sampling and Storage 68
5.4 Methodologies to Analyse Degraded DNA 70
5.5 Future Prospects 74
5.6 Conclusion 75
References 75
6 Taphonomic Alterations to Hair and Nail 81
Andrew S. Wilson
6.1 Introduction 81
6.2 Structure of Hair and Nail 82
6.3 Changes to Hair and Nail 83
6.4 Processing and Storage of Hair 87
6.5 Conclusion 87
Acknowledgements 88
References 88
7 Taphonomy of Teeth 92
Christopher W. Schmidt, Robin Quataert, Fatma Zalzala and Ruggero D Anastasio
7.1 Introduction 92
7.2 Mechanical Damage: Forensic Case Study 93
7.3 Effects of Thermal Damage 94
7.4 Thermal Damage: Archaeological Case Study 95
7.5 Caveats 97
7.6 Conclusion 98
References 98
8 The Taphonomy of Natural Mummies 101
Dario Piombino–Mascali, Heather Gill–Frerking and Ronald G. Beckett
8.1 Introduction 101
8.2 Post–Mortem Decay 102
8.3 Natural or Spontaneous Mummification 102
8.4 Soft Tissue Changes 103
8.5 Environment, Culture or Both? 104
8.6 Dry Environments 104
8.7 Bog Environments 109
8.8 Cold Environments 110
8.9 Anaerobic Environments 112
8.10 Differential Decomposition 113
8.11 Post–Depositional Factors and Taphonomic Impact 114
8.12 Conclusion 116
References 116
9 Degradation of Clothing in Depositional Environments 120
Barbara H. Stuart and Maiken Ueland
9.1 Introduction 120
9.2 The Structures and Properties of Clothing Materials 120
9.3 Decomposition Mechanisms of Clothing Materials in Depositional Environments 124
9.4 The Influence of Clothing on the Decomposition Processes 127
9.5 Forensic and Archaeological Studies of Clothing Degradation 128
9.6 Protocols for Forensic and Archaeological Clothing Collection and Analysis 130
9.7 Conclusion and Future Research 131
References 131
10 Post–Mortem Interval Estimation: an Overview of Techniques 134
Tal Simmons
10.1 Introduction 134
10.2 Why Estimating the PMI is Important 134
10.3 Scientific Method versus Anecdote in PMI Estimation 135
10.4 Methods for Estimating PMI 137
10.5 Case Example 139
10.6 Conclusion and Future Research 140
References 141
Part II The Depositional Environment 143
11 Relationships between Human Remains, Graves and the Depositional Environment 145
Emily N. Junkins and David O. Carter
11.1 Introduction 145
11.2 The Taphonomy of Buried Human Remains 145
11.3 Factors that Influence Decomposition: Environmental and Intrinsic Variables 146
11.4 Decomposition Processes: Autolysis, Putrefaction and Decay 149
11.5 The Forensic Application of Taphonomy 150
11.6 Conclusion 151
References 152
12 Bacterial Symbionts and Taphonomic Agents of Humans 155
Franklin E. Damann
12.1 Introduction 155
12.2 Bacterial Growth and Metabolism 156
12.3 Limiting Factors of Bacterial Growth and Function 156
12.4 Bacteria as Symbiotic Organisms 158
12.5 Bacteria as Taphonomic Agents 159
12.6 Putrefaction 159
12.7 Microbiology in Forensic Medicine 161
12.8 Conclusion 163
References 164
13 Forensic Entomology and Funerary Archaeoentomology 167
Stefano Vanin and Jean–Bernard Huchet
13.1 Introduction 167
13.2 Insects: Useful Information for Forensic Scientists and Archaeologists 168
13.3 Forensic Entomology and the Application of Insect Knowledge in Forensic Contexts 175
13.4 Insects Recovered from Graves or Associated with Human Remains in Archaeological Contexts 176
13.5 Body Alteration at the Crime Scene as a Result of Insect Activity 179
13.6 Bone Modifications due to Insect Activity 181
13.7 Conclusion 181
Acknowledgements 182
References 182
14 Forensic Botany and Stomach Contents Analysis: Established Practice and Innovation 187
Jennifer Miller
14.1 Introduction 187
14.2 Forensic Applications of Botany 187
14.3 Conclusion 197
References 198
15 The Effects of Weathering on Bone Preservation 201
Soren Blau
15.1 Introduction 201
15.2 A Brief History of Weathering Studies 201
15.3 Variables that Influence Weathering 202
15.4 The Value of Bone Weathering Analyses in Forensic Investigations 204
15.5 Conclusion 208
Acknowledgements 208
References 208
16 The Effects of Terrestrial Mammalian Scavenging and Avian Scavenging on the Body 212
Alexandria Young
16.1 Introduction 212
16.2 Terrestrial Mammalian Scavengers 213
16.3 Avian Scavengers 225
16.4 Applications to Crime Scene Investigation 226
16.5 Conclusion and Future Research 227
References 228
17 Decomposition in Aquatic Environments 235
Barbara H. Stuart and Maiken Ueland
17.1 Introduction 235
17.2 Decomposition Processes in Aquatic Environments 236
17.3 Post–Mortem Submersion Interval 239
17.4 Factors Influencing Aquatic Decomposition Processes 240
17.5 Case Reports and Studies 244
17.6 Recovery Protocols 246
17.7 Conclusion and Future Research 247
References 247
18 Post–Mortem Differential Preservation and its Utility in Interpreting Forensic and Archaeological Mass Burials 251
Caroline Barker, Esma Alicehajic and Javier Naranjo Santana
18.1 Introduction 251
18.2 Assessment of Taphonomic Change in Forensic and Archaeological Contexts 251
18.3 The Study of Taphonomy in Forensic and Archaeological Contexts 253
18.4 Taphonomic Assessment in Mass Burial Deposits 256
18.5 Taphonomic Processes and Differential Preservation in Mass Burials: Current Research and Application 258
18.6 Case Study 1: Differential Preservation of Human Remains and Artefacts in Archaeological Mass Graves of the Same PMI and its Utility to Establish Differences in Burial Environments over Time 262
18.7 Case Study 2: Differential Preservation of Human Remains in Forensic Mass Graves and its Use as an Evidentiary Tool 264
18.8 Conclusion and Future Research 266
Acknowledgements 267
References 267
19 Reconstructing the Original Arrangement, Organisation and Architecture of Burials in Archaeology 277
Dominique Castex and Frédérique Blaizot
19.1 Introduction 277
19.2 The Reconstruction of Perishable Funerary Architecture and its Arrangement 278
19.3 Analysis of Several Individuals in the Same Pit 284
19.4 Conclusion 294
Acknowledgements 294
References 295
Part III Anti–, Peri– and Post–Mortem Modifications to the Body 297
20 Forensic Toxicology of Decomposed Human Remains 299
Richard Lloyd and Julie Evans
20.1 Introduction 299
20.2 Toxicological Matrices 301
20.3 Case Study 307
20.4 Conclusion and Future Research 311
References 311
21 Thermal Alteration to the Body 318
Tim J.U. Thompson, David Gonçalves, Kirsty Squires and Priscilla Ulguim
21.1 Introduction 318
21.2 Soft Tissue Changes 318
21.3 Hard Tissue Changes 319
21.4 Conclusion and Future Research 328
References 329
22 Concealing the Crime: the Effects of Chemicals on Human Tissues 335
Eline M. J. Schotsmans and Wim Van de Voorde
22.1 Introduction 335
22.2 Corrosive Substances: Definitions and History 336
22.3 The Effect of Corrosive Substances on Human Tissues: Case Examples 337
22.4 Research on Corrosive Agents and Decomposition 341
22.5 Case Study: The Pandy Case 343
22.6 Conclusion 347
Acknowledgements 347
References 348
23 Distinguishing between Peri– and Post–Mortem Trauma on Bone 352
Cristina Cattaneo and Annalisa Cappella
23.1 Introduction 352
23.2 Peri– and Post–Mortem Trauma 352
23.3 Alternative Solutions for Distinguishing Between Peri– and Post–Mortem Trauma on Bone 362
23.4 Conclusion 365
References 365
24 Collection Care and Management of Human Remains 369
Rebecca C. Redfern and Jelena J. Bekvalac
24.1 Introduction 369
24.2 Collection Origin and Deposition 369
24.3 Collection Management 371
24.4 Conclusion 378
Acknowledgements 379
References 379
Part IV Case Studies 385
25 The Use of Volatile Fatty Acid Biomarkers to Estimate the Post–Mortem Interval 387
Arpad A. Vass
25.1 Introduction 387
25.2 Methods and Collection 387
25.3 Conclusion 393
References 393
26 A Taphonomic Study Based on Observations of 196 Exhumations and 23 Clandestine Burials 394
Roosje de Leeuwe and W.J. Mike Groen
26.1 Introduction 394
26.2 Background on the Exhumations Carried out by the NFI 394
26.3 Variables 395
26.4 Cemetery versus Clandestine Burials 400
26.5 Conclusion 401
References 401
27 Case Studies on Taphonomic Variation between Cemetery Burials 402
Karl Harrison and Emily Cline
27.1 Introduction 402
27.2 Burial Taphonomy: Examples of Cemetery Burials 402
27.3 Conclusion 407
References 408
28 Forensic Entomology Case Studies from Mexico 410
Leonardo R. Flores Pérez, Humberto Molina Chávez, Manuel Nava Hernández and Fray M. Pérez Villegas
28.1 Introduction 410
28.2 Case Study from Mexico City 410
28.3 Case Studies from Hidalgo State 414
28.4 Conclusion 417
References 417
29 Recovery of Skeletonised Human Remains and Textile Degradation: a Case Study 420
Rob C. Janaway and Nicholas Márquez–Grant
29.1 Introduction 420
29.2 Outdoor Recovery of Skeletonised Human Remains 420
29.3 Case Study 422
29.4 Conclusion 426
Acknowledgements 428
References 428
30 Saponified Brains of the Spanish Civil War 429
Fernando Serrulla, Francisco Etxeberría, Lourdes Herrasti, José Luis Cascallana and Julio Del Olmo
30.1 Introduction: the Spanish Civil War (1936 1939) 429
30.2 Two Mass Graves 429
30.3 Methods and Materials 431
30.4 Results: Taphonomic Factors and Brain Analysis 431
30.5 Discussion and Conclusion 434
Acknowledgements 436
References 436
31 Analysis and Interpretation of Burned Human Remains from a Homicide 438
Anne Coulombeix and Yves Schuliar
31.1 Introduction 438
31.2 Background to the Case 438
31.3 Physical Evidence Recovered at the Crime Scene 439
31.4 Additional Experiments 440
31.5 Discussion 442
31.6 Conclusion 443
Acknowledgements 443
References 443
32 A Soldier s Story: Forensic Anthropology and Blast Injury 445
Marie Christine Dussault, Martin Brown and Richard Osgood
32.1 Introduction 445
32.2 Background and Case History 445
32.3 Condition of the Remains and Inventory 446
32.4 Analysis Results 448
32.5 Discussion 449
32.6 Conclusion 451
References 451
33 Decomposition in an Unusual Environment: Body Sealed in Concrete 452
Maria Cristina de Mendonça
33.1 Introduction 452
33.2 Case Report 452
33.3 Discussion and Conclusion 453
34 A Case Study from Los Angeles: Baby in Concrete 454
Chelsea Parham and Elissa Fleak
34.1 Introduction 454
34.2 Background to the Case 454
34.3 External Examination 455
34.4 Internal Examination 457
34.5 Discussion 458
34.6 Conclusion 459
References 459
Part V Past, Present and Future Considerations 461
35 History and Development of the First Anthropology Research Facility, Knoxville, Tennessee 463
Giovanna M. Vidoli, Dawnie W. Steadman, Joanne B. Devlin and Lee Meadows Jantz
35.1 Introduction 463
35.2 History of the ARF 463
35.3 Daily Operations of the FAC 465
35.4 Research at the ARF 468
35.5 Training Opportunities at the ARF 470
35.6 Conclusion 471
References 472
36 Crime Scene Investigation, Archaeology and Taphonomy: Reconstructing Activities at Crime Scenes 476
W.J. Mike Groen and Charles E.H. Berger
36.1 Introduction 476
36.2 CSI Fundamentals 478
36.3 The Archaeological Paradigm 480
36.4 Assessing Archaeological Assemblages and Site Formation Processes 483
36.5 The CSI Practice, an Archaeological and Criminalistic Perspective 484
36.6 Conclusion 490
Acknowledgements 491
References 491
Index 495