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Revitalising Language in Provence: A Critical Approach (Publications of the Philological Society)

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en Limba Engleză Carte Paperback – 03 Mar 2017
Few question the importance of the survival of languages in today’s world. Yet why is it that many “language revitalisation” movements have a wider social agenda? And why do people choose language—and not, say, religion, ethnicity, or politics—to express claims and positions in the world? A stark rise in language revitalisation movements in recent years has necessitated a clearer understanding of the field—a need filled by Revitalising Language in Provence: A Critical Approach. Through a detailed analysis Southern France’s Provençal movement, one of Europe’s longest standing language revitalisation projects, noted sociolinguistic James Costa reveals that “language revitalisation” is often more than it appears to be—and how “saving a language” may not be the primary objective of many such movements. Costa shows that language revitalisation constitutes an attempt to renegotiate the very terms of historical contact between groups which are themselves generated through that very process. Opening chapters explore how revitalization has emerged as a theoretical and empirical object of scholarly discussion with Costa challenging the field’s main tenets. The next sections focus on language revitalization as a form of conflict, and Costa shows how the revitalisation movement often sees itself in a minority role pitted against a dominant group. He argues that the aim of revitalisation movements is to renegotiate the unequal terms of this contact—a task enabled only through “groupness” work. Questions are then answered about how language revitalisation generates groupness, and how one is to distinguish between legitimate language and speaker—the underlying question of all such movements. Revitalising Language in Provence: A Critical Approach offers illuminating insights into not just keeping language alive, but how people come together to act and articulate opinions on how society should be ordered—and who should take part in ordering it—in the contemporary world.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781119243533
ISBN-10: 111924353X
Pagini: 192
Dimensiuni: 166 x 229 x 11 mm
Greutate: 0.32 kg
Editura: Wiley
Seria Publications of the Philological Society

Locul publicării: Chichester, United Kingdom

Public țintă

Academics, researchers and scholars of linguistics, sociolinguistics, semiotics, and related language courses

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Few question the importance of the survival of languages in today’s world. Yet why is it that many “language revitalisation” movements have a wider social agenda? And why do people choose language—and not, say, religion, ethnicity, or politics—to express claims and positions in the world? A stark rise in language revitalisation movements in recent years has necessitated a clearer understanding of the field—a need filled by Revitalising Language in Provence: A Critical Approach. Through a detailed analysis Southern France’s Provençal movement, one of Europe’s longest standing language revitalisation projects, noted sociolinguistic James Costa reveals that “language revitalisation” is often more than it appears to be—and how “saving a language” may not be the primary objective of many such movements. Costa shows that language revitalisation constitutes an attempt to renegotiate the very terms of historical contact between groups which are themselves generated through that very process. Opening chapters explore how revitalization has emerged as a theoretical and empirical object of scholarly discussion with Costa challenging the field’s main tenets. The next sections focus on language revitalization as a form of conflict, and Costa shows how the revitalisation movement often sees itself in a minority role pitted against a dominant group. He argues that the aim of revitalisation movements is to renegotiate the unequal terms of this contact—a task enabled only through “groupness” work. Questions are then answered about how language revitalisation generates groupness, and how one is to distinguish between legitimate language and speaker—the underlying question of all such movements. Revitalising Language in Provence: A Critical Approach offers illuminating insights into not just keeping language alive, but how people come together to act and articulate opinions on how society should be ordered—and who should take part in ordering it—in the contemporary world.

Cuprins

Acknowledgements
Preface
1. Researching language revitalisation from a critical sociolinguistic perspective
1.1. Saving authentic languages vs. inventing new ones
1.2. Language revitalisation
1.3. Language revitalisation in Academic Work
1.4. Revitalising Occitan in Southern France: Occitania and Provence
1.5. Positioning
1.6. Critical sociolinguistics
1.7. Volume outline
Revitalising
2. Language revitalisation: a genealogy
2.1. Introduction: investigating language revitalisation
2.2. The Precursors: antiquarians and French Revolutionaries
2.3. North American scholarship: anthropology and sociolinguistics
2.4. Descriptive linguistics and language endangerment
2.5. Language revitalisation and linguistics
2.6. Language documentation and description established
3. Defining language revitalisation
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Defi ning revitalisation
3.3. Establishing a discourse of diagnosis and remedy
3.4. Critical approaches to endangerment and revitalisation
3.5. Conclusion
4. Revitalisation as recategorisation
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Rethinking revitalisation as a social movement
4.3. Revitalisation as a conscious effort to implement social change
4.4. Revitalisation and culture change in later debates
4.5. The study of language revitalisation movements
4.5.1. Proposition 1: language revitalisation, as a social movement, is about groupness
4.5.2. Proposition 2: language revitalisation as the consequence of social contact
4.5.3. Proposition 3: language revitalisation is fundamentallya struggle over classifi cations
4.5.4. Language revitalisation is ultimately not about language or even about past linguistic hierarchies
4.6. Conclusion
Conflict in the Occitan South of France
5. Does context stink?
5.1. Introduction
5.2. The Predicament of contextualising: does context stink?
5.3. Language revitalisation in the South of France: who are we talking about?
5.3.1. Experts: legitimising knowledge and revitalisation
5.3.2. Language advocates: disseminating the revitalization narrative
5.3.3. Traditional and new speakers
5.4. Conclusion
6. What the Occitan Language movement is up against: the French Nationalist and Linguistic Project
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Narratives of Frenchness
6.3. Erasing linguistic Otherness in the Sixteenth century
6.4. Patois and the construction of citizenship
6.5. Dialectology and the linguistic making of France
6.6. The French nationalist project and the marginalisation of the South
6.7. Conclusion: a new world ready for language revivals to happen
7. Reviving Occitan
7.1. Introduction
7.2. The first ‘Occitan’ revivals?
7.3. The contemporary language movement in Southern France: from the Felibrige to the Institut d’Estudis Occitans
7.4. The primacy of place, or the identifi cation of language and territory
7.5. History: imagining the past and calling the future into being
7.6. Conclusion
8. Internal struggles
8.1. Introduction: language revitalisation as a terrain for language ideological debates
8.2. Nineteenth century linguistic ideological debates: who can speak on behalf of the South?
8.2.1. History as a shaping discipline
8.2.2. Early orthographic debates
8.2.3. Representing the South
8.3. Contemporary struggles: Provençal as a language in its own right or as an Occitan dialect
8.3.1. Ideological roots of contemporary linguistic arguments
8.3.2. Diversity and the endangerment discourse of the 1980s and 1990s: setting the old song to a new tune
8.3.3. A rose by any other name would not smell as sweet: the collectif prouvènço, a new player in provençal language politics
8.3.4. Occitan globalisation and the shaming of the Occitan middle class
8.4. Conclusion
Legitimacy
9. Legitimate language and traditional speakers
9.1. Introduction: fi nding the ‘traditional speaker’
9.2. ‘Language’ according to traditional speakers in provence
9.3. Terminological confusion in orange
9.3.1. Categorising speech and language: ‘patois’ and ‘mistralien’
9.3.2. Language and place
9.4. Conclusion
10. Children as ambiguous participants in language revitalisation
10.1. Introduction: the dubious child
10.2. Children as children: tokens of growth and of a future for the community
10.3. Children as pupils
10.4. Bilingual education pupils as ‘new speakers’
10.4.1. New speakers and legitimate language on the Provençal linguistic market
10.4.2. New speakers for academics: a descriptive category?
10.4.3. Legitimacy among bilingual school pupils in Provence
10.4.4. Encountering the native speaker: reframing language into old vs. new provençal
10.5. Conclusion
11. Conclusion: wrestling with classifi cations in a world of signs
References
Index

Notă biografică

James Costa is Associate Professor of Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology at the Université Sorbonne Nouvelle in Paris, France.