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Quantitative Microbiology in Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology

Editat de Anderson de Souza Sant′Ana
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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 03 Feb 2017
Microorganisms are essential for the production of many foods, including cheese, yoghurt, and bread, but they can also cause spoilage and diseases. Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology explores the effects of food processing techniques on these microorganisms, the microbial ecology of food, and the surrounding issues concerning contemporary food safety and stability.

Whilst literature has been written on these separate topics, this book seamlessly integrates all these concepts in a unique and comprehensive guide. Each chapter includes background information regarding a specific unit operation, discussion of quantitative aspects, and examples of food processes in which the unit operation plays a major role in microbial safety. This is the perfect text for those seeking to understand the quantitative effects of unit operations and beyond on the fate of foodborne microorganisms in different foods. Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing is an invaluable resource for students, scientists, and professionals of both food engineering and food microbiology.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781118756423
ISBN-10: 1118756428
Pagini: 696
Dimensiuni: 196 x 247 x 32 mm
Greutate: 1.47 kg
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Chichester, United Kingdom

Public țintă

University students and faculty engaged in food science and technology studies, as well as other related areas (chemistry, agricultural research); researchers and professionals working in food microbiology, safety, food science and technology. Industrial researchers, regulatory agencies in food & agriculture, drugs and environment.

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Microorganisms are essential for the production of many foods, including cheese, yoghurt, and bread, but they can also cause spoilage and diseases. Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology explores the effects of food processing techniques on these microorganisms, the microbial ecology of food, and the surrounding issues concerning contemporary food safety and stability.

Whilst literature has been written on these separate topics, this book seamlessly integrates all these concepts in a unique and comprehensive guide. Each chapter includes background information regarding a specific unit operation, discussion of quantitative aspects, and examples of food processes in which the unit operation plays a major role in microbial safety. This is the perfect text for those seeking to understand the quantitative effects of unit operations and beyond on the fate of foodborne microorganisms in different foods. Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing is an invaluable resource for students, scientists, and professionals of both food engineering and food microbiology.

Cuprins

List of contributors xvi
Part I Introductory section 1
1 Introduction to the microbial ecology of foods 3
D. Roy and G. LaPointe
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Role of food characteristics and environment on microbial fate 4
1.3 Understanding microbial growth, death, persistence, competition, antagonism and survival in food 8
1.4 Methods to study the microbial ecology of foods 11
1.5 Perspectives on applying food ecosystem modeling 12
References 13
2 Predictive microbiology: mathematics towards understanding the fate of food borne microorganisms in food processing 16
P.N. Skandamis and E.Z. Panagou
2.1 Introduction 16
2.2 Probability and kinetic models for food processing and HACCP 18
2.3 Thermal inactivation 32
2.4 Non thermal inactivation and modeling stress adaptation strategies 34
2.5 Fermentation: a dynamic environment for microbial growth and pathogen inactivation 38
2.6 Colonial versus planktonic type of growth: modes of microbial existence on surfaces and in liquid, semi liquid, and solid foods 41
2.7 Modeling microbial transfer between processing equipment and foods 45
2.8 Alternative multivariate approaches: the use of bioinformatics for characterizing spoilage and product classification 49
References 51
3 Principles of unit operations in food processing 68
A. Ibarz and P.E.D. Augusto
3.1 Introduction 68
3.2 Principles of transport phenomena 68
3.3 Principles and unit operations of momentum transfer 69
3.4 Principles and unit operations of heat transfer 73
3.5 Principles and unit operations of mass transfer 81
3.6 Conclusions 82
References 83
Part II Impact of unit operations on microorganisms of relevance in foods 85
4 Impact of materials handling at pre and post harvest operations on the microbial ecology of foods of vegetable origin 87
A.N. Olaimat, P.J. Delaquis, and R.A. Holley
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 The production environment 90
4.3 Soil 91
4.4 Fertilizers derived from animal wastes 92
4.5 Irrigation 93
4.6 Harvesting and handling 98
4.7 Postharvest processing 99
4.8 Packaging, storage, and transportation 101
4.9 Conclusions 103
References 103
5 Impact of heating operations on the microbial ecology of foods 117
E. Xanthakis and V.P. Valdramidis
5.1 Background and basic information of heating operations 117
5.2 Quantitative aspects and how unit operations impact on food borne microorganisms 131
5.3 Application of F value concept 132
5.4 Dealing with non linearity 133
5.5 Development of new concepts to assess heat processes 135
5.6 Microbial safety and stability of heating operations: challenges and perspectives 136
References 136
6 Impact of refrigeration operations on the microbial ecology of foods 142
L. Huang
6.1 Introduction 142
6.2 Refrigeration as a unit operation 143
6.3 Dynamic effect of chilling on growth of C. perfringens during cooling 147
References 158
7 Impact of dehydration and drying operations on the microbial ecology of foods 160
F. Pérez Rodríguez, E. Carrasco, and A. Valero
7.1 Introduction 160
7.2 Modeling the drying process in food 161
7.3 Modeling microbial survival/inactivation in drying/dehydration processes 163
7.4 Example of application/development of predictive microbiology models for describing microbial death during drying processes 169
7.5 Conclusions 173
References 173
8 Impact of irradiation on the microbial ecology of foods 176
S. Unluturk
8.1 Introduction 176
8.2 Ionizing radiation 176
8.3 Non ionizing radiation 180
References 187
9 Impact of high pressure processing on the microbial ecology of foods 194
S. Mukhopadhyay, D.O. Ukuku, V. Juneja, and R. Ramaswamy
9.1 Introduction 194
9.2 Processing operation 195
9.3 Bacteria and enzyme inactivation 195
9.4 Effect of high pressure on fruit and vegetable products 198
9.5 Effect of HHP on meat and other food products 198
9.6 Effect of added antimicrobial on pathogen inactivation by high pressure processing (hurdle approach) 199
9.7 High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) disinfection 200
9.8 Effect of HHP on bacteria, virus, insects, and other organisms 201
9.9 Effect of HHP on quality: color, flavor, texture, sugar, totally soluble, and insolubles 203
9.10 Advantages and disadvantages of using HHP 205
9.11 Applications and conclusions 205
References 206
10 Impact of Vacuum packaging, modified and controlled atmosphere on the microbial ecology of foods 217
L. Angiolillo, A. Conte, and M.A.D. Nobile
10.1 Introduction 217
10.2 Vacuum packaging 218
10.3 Controlled atmosphere 219
10.4 Modified atmosphere packaging 220
References 223
11 Impact of fermentation on the microbial ecology of foods 226
M. Mataragas, K. Rantsiou, and L. Cocolin
11.1 Introduction 226
11.2 Fermentations: microbial ecology and activity 227
11.3 Factors affecting food borne pathogen inactivation during fermentation 227
11.4 Challenge tests 229
11.5 Predictive modeling 230
11.6 Conclusions 236
References 236
12 Impact of forming and mixing operations on the microbial ecology of foods: focus on pathogenic microorganisms 241
J.C.C.P. Costa, G.D. Posada Izquierdo, F. Perez Rodriguez, and R.M. Garcia Gimeno
12.1 Forming 241
12.2 Homogenizing 244
12.3 Mixing 246
References 248
13 Impact of specific unit operations on food borne microorganisms: curing, salting, extrusion, puffing, encapsulation, absorption, extraction, distillation, and crystallization 250
E. Ortega Rivas, S.B. Perez Vega, and I. Salmeron
13.1 Introductory remarks 250
13.2 Burden of food borne illnesses 250
13.3 Food safety and food quality 251
13.4 Prevention and control through processing 251
13.5 Conclusions and prospects for the future 260
References 261
14 Impact of food unit operations on virus loads in foods 263
D. Li, A.D. Keuckelaere, and M. Uyttendaele
14.1 Introduction 263
14.2 The use of surrogate viruses to assess inactivation processes 263
14.3 Virus contamination in food processing 264
14.4 Survival of virus in the food processing chain 267
14.5 Effect of food preservation techniques on the virus load 267
14.6 Conclusion and perspectives 280
References 281
15 Impact of food unit operations on parasites in foods: focus on selected parasites within the fresh produce industry 288
L.J. Robertson
15.1 Background and introduction 288
15.2 Detection of selected parasites in fresh produce 299
15.3 Effects of fresh produce treatments on selected parasites 303
15.4 Conclusion 315
References 316
16 Impact of food unit operations on probiotic microorganisms 327
A. Gandhi and N.P. Shah
16.1 Introduction 327
16.2 Probiotic products 328
16.3 probiotics and environmental stress: cellular mechanisms and resistance 328
16.4 Enhancing stress resistance of probiotics 332
16.5 Conclusion 334
References 334
Part III Microbial ecology of food products 339
17 Microbial ecology of fresh vegetables 341
J. Zheng, J. Kase, A. De Jesus, S. Sahu, A.E. Hayford, Y. Luo, A.R. Datta, E.W. Brown, and R. Bell
17.1 Introduction 341
17.2 Prevalence and diversity of microbial communities on fresh vegetables (post harvest) 341
17.3 Post harvest persistence, colonization, and survival on fresh vegetables 342
17.4 Routes of contamination during post harvest handling of fresh and fresh cut vegetables 345
17.5 Microbial adaptation on produce commodity 347
17.6 Effective post harvest intervention technologies 348
References 350
18 Microbial ecology of fruits and fruit based products 358
S. Paramithiotis, E.H. Drosinos, and P.N. Skandamis
18.1 Introduction 358
18.2 Fresh whole fruits 359
18.3 Minimally processed fruits 367
18.4 Processed fruits 372
Acknowledgments 374
References 374
19 Microbial ecology of cereal and cereal based foods 382
A. Bevilacqua, M. Sinigaglia, and M.R. Corbo
19.1 Introduction 382
19.2 Sourdough 382
19.3 Ethnic fermented foods 384
19.4 Spoilage of cereals and cereal products 385
References 388
20 Microbial ecology of nuts, seeds, and sprouts 390
M.S. Rhee, S.A. Kim, and N.H. Kim
20.1 Introduction 390
20.2 Definition and classification of nuts, seeds, and sprouts 390
20.3 Microbial ecology of nuts and seeds 391
20.4 Microbial ecology of sprouts and their corresponding seeds 400
20.5 Implications and perspectives 409
References 410
21 Microbial ecology of eggs: a focus on Salmonella and microbial contamination in post harvest table shell egg production 416
S.C. Ricke
21.1 Introduction 416
21.2 Historical and current trends in commercial egg production 417
21.3 Egg production management on the farm and incidence of Salmonella 420
21.4 Egg processing and microbial contamination: general aspects 421
21.5 Microbial contamination during egg collection at the farm to in line processing 423
21.6 Microbial contamination during transportation to off line egg processing facilities 424
21.7 Microbial contamination during egg processing 425
21.8 Egg washwater and sanitation 426
21.9 Egg retail and microbial contamination 428
21.10 Conclusions and future directions 429
Acknowledgment 431
References 431
22 Microbial ecology of beef carcasses and beef products 442
X. Yang
22.1 Introduction 442
22.2 Carcass production process 442
22.3 Carcass breaking 451
References 455
23 Microbial ecology of pork meat and pork products 463
L. Iacumin and J. Carballo
23.1 Introduction 463
23.2 Pork meat as a substrate for microbial growth: chemical and physical characteristics 464
23.3 Microbial ecology of fresh pork meat: sources of contamination and microbial groups 465
23.4 Microbial ecology of chilled pork meat 467
23.5 Microbial ecology of vacuum/modified atmosphere packaged pork meat 468
23.6 Microbial ecology of marinated pork meat 469
23.7 Microbial ecology of cured and fermented/ripened pork meats 470
23.8 Microbial ecology of high pressure preserved pork meat 473
References 474
24 Microbial ecology of poultry and poultry products 483
S. Buncic, D. Antic, and B. Blagojevic
24.1 Introduction 483
24.2 Microbial hazard identification and prioritization 483
24.3 Microbial aspects of poultry processing at abattoirs 484
24.4 Microbial aspects of derived poultry meat products 492
References 497
25 Microbial ecology of seafoods: a special emphasis on the spoilage microbiota of North Sea seafood 499
K. Broekaert, G. Vlaemynck, and M. Heyndrickx
25.1 Introduction 499
25.2 Total viable counts (TVC s) and microorganisms identified depends on the method used 499
25.3 The initial microbiota of marine fish 501
25.4 Raw seafood 503
25.5 Processing lightly preserved seafood 506
25.6 A case study: brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) (adapted from Broekaert et al. 2013) 509
References 513
26 Microbial ecology of mayonnaise, margarine, and sauces 519
O. Sagdic, F. Tornuk, S. Karasu, M.Z. Durak, and M. Arici
26.1 Introduction 519
26.2 Mayonnaise 519
26.3 Margarine 523
26.4 Sauces and salad dressings 525
26.5 Conclusion 527
References 529
27 Microbial ecology of confectionary products, honey, sugar, and syrups 533
M. Nascimento and A. Mondal
27.1 Introduction 533
27.2 Cocoa and chocolate 533
27.3 Nuts and peanut butter 535
27.4 Honey 538
27.5 Sugar 539
27.6 Syrups 539
27.7 Conclusion 540
References 540
28 Microbial ecology of wine 547
E. Vaudano, A. Costantini, and E. Garcia Moruno
28.1 Introduction 547
28.2 Biodiversity of grape microorganisms 547
28.3 Microorganism ecology in winemaking 548
28.4 Microorganism ecology during aging 550
28.5 Microbial identification by classical methods 551
28.6 Microbial identification by molecular methods 551
References 555
29 Microbial diversity and ecology of bottled water 560
C.M. Manaia and O.C. Nunes
29.1 Definitions of bottled water 560
29.2 Characteristics of mineral and spring water 562
29.3 Useful methods to study bottled water microbiota 565
29.4 Microbiological diversity 568
29.5 Bottling effect 573
29.6 Microbiological contamination 574
29.7 A new perspective on microbiological quality and safety 576
Acknowledgments 577
References 577
Part IV Closing section 581
30 Microbial risk assessment: integrating and quantifying the impacts of food processing operations on food safety 583
J. C. Augustin, M. Ellouze, and L. Guillier
30.1 Introduction 583
30.2 Basic processes encountered during food processing operations 584
30.2.1 Microbial processes 584
30.3 Risk based objectives for each processing operation 590
30.4 Conclusion 595
References 596
31 Quorum sensing and microbial ecology of foods 600
V.A. Blana, A. Lianou, and G. J.E. Nychas
31.1 Introduction 600
31.2 Quorum sensing and microbial behavior 601
31.3 Quorum sensing and food ecology 606
31.4 Quorum quenching 610
References 611
32 Heterogeneity in Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth: an area of key challenges for omics in food microbiology 617
R. Pandey and S. Brul
32.1 Bacterial spores in the food industry 617
32.2 The Bacillus genus 618
32.3 Sporulation cycle 618
32.4 Endospore structure and its resistance 619
32.5 Spore germination and outgrowth 620
32.6 Heterogeneity in bacterial (spore) physiology during germination and outgrowth 623
32.7 Steps towards single cell physiology and omics measurements 625
References 626
33 Role of stress response on microbial ecology of foods and its impact on the fate of food borne microorganisms 631
A. Alvarez Ordóñez, M. López, and M. Prieto
33.1 Introduction 631
33.2 Acquisition of permanent stress tolerance through adaptive mutagenesis 631
33.3 Transient adaptive responses to stress: modulation of membrane fluidity as an example 634
33.4 Using food components to survive under harsh conditions 636
33.5 The balance between self preservation and nutritional competence (SPANC) 639
33.6 Conclusions and future prospects 641
Acknowledgment 643
References 643
Index 649

Notă biografică

Prof. Dr. Anderson de Souza Sant′Ana, Department of Food science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Anderson de Souza Sant′Ana is an Industrial Chemist, Master and PhD in Food Science. As an Industrial Chemist his interests are focused on the microbiological aspects involving the handling and transformation of raw materials into processed food products. He has authored more than 40 articles in international referred journals and is reviewer of more than 40 scientific peer–reviewed journals in food science area. Currently, he is editor–in–chief of Food Research International, Regional editor (South America) of the British Food Journal, associate editor of Acta Amazonica, handling editor of Journal of Applied Microbiology (Wiley) and Letters in Applied Microbiology (Wiley), and editorial board member of Food Bioscience (Elsevier) and Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Wiley). Currently, he is Professor of Food Microbiology, in the Faculty of Food Engineering at University of Campinas in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where he teaches Microbiology of Food Processing, Thermobacteriology Applied to Food Processing, and Microbiology and Fermentations for undergraduate course in Food Engineering, and Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing and Quantitative Aspects of Food Stability and Safety for the Graduation Program in Food Science.