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Plant Nematology

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en Limba Engleză Paperback – 16 Oct 2013
Plant-parasitic nematodes devastate crops worldwide, in turn impacting international trade, social and economic development. Effective control of nematodes is essential for crop protection, and requires an understanding of nematode biology, taxonomy, population dynamics and sampling methods. Providing a broad introduction to nematodes as plant parasites, this book begins by describing nematodes by genera, and builds on this foundation to detail nematode biology and pest management, including biological and chemical control. Chapters are authored by international experts and enhanced by extensive illustrations and focus boxes. Fully updated throughout, this new edition is an essential resource for postgraduate students, extension officers, researchers and crop protection scientists.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781780641539
ISBN-10: 1780641532
Pagini: 568
Ilustrații: 73 illustrations
Dimensiuni: 191 x 244 x 36 mm
Greutate: 1.57 kg
Ediția: Revised
Editura: CABI

Cuprins

The Editors Contributors Preface Preface to the second edition PART I. TAXONOMY AND PRINCIPAL GENERA 1 Structure and Classification Wilfrida Decraemer and David J. Hunt 1.1. Introduction 1.2. General Morphology 1.3. Life Cycle Stages 1.4. Feeding Groups 1.5. Classification of Plant-parasitic nematodes 1.6. Common Morphometric Abbreviations 2 Molecular Systematics Sergei A. Subbotin, Lieven Waeyenberge and Maurice Moens 2.1. Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics 2.2. Species Concepts and Delimiting Species in Nematology 2.3. Phylogenetics and Classification 2.4. Molecular Techniques 2.5. Genes used for Molecular Systematics 2.6. Microsatellites 2.7. DNA Bar-coding 2.8. Phylogenetic Inference 2.9. Reconstruction of Historical Association 2.10. Databases 2.11. Examples of Molecular Phylogenies 3 Root-knot Nematodes Gerrit Karssen,Wim Wesemael and Maurice Moens 3.1. Introduction to Root-knot Nematodes 3.2. Life Cycle and Behaviour 3.3. Host Response to Parasitism 3.4. Post-infection Biology 3.5. Plant Growth and Yield 3.6. Survival 3.7. Cytogenetics 3.8. General Morphology 3.9. Principal Species 3.10. Biochemical and Molecular Identification 3.11. Interactions with other Plant Pathogens 3.12. Management and control 4 Cyst Nematodes Susan J. Turner and Sergei A. Subbotin 4.1. Introduction to Cyst Nematodes 4.2. Life Cycle and Behaviour 4.3 General Morphology of the Subfamily Heteroderinae 4.4. Genera and Principal Species 4.5. Pathotypes and Races 4.6. Biochemical and Molecular Diagnostics 4.7. Interactions with Other Plant Pathogens 4.8. Management 5 Migratory Endoparasitic Nematodes Larry A. Duncan and Maurice Moens 5.1. Introduction to Migratory Endoparasitic Nematodes 5.2. The Pratylenchids: Lesion, Burrowing and Rice Root Nematodes 5.3. Anguinids and the Stem and Bulb Nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci 5.4. Plant-parasitic Aphelenchs 6 Ectoparasitic Nematodes Wilfrida Decraemer and Etienne Geraert 6.1. Introduction to Endoparasitic Nematodes 6.2. Definition of Ectoparasites/Ectoparasitism 6.3. Classification 6.4. Tylenchina (Chromadorea, Chromadoria) 6.5. Enoplea 6.6. Biochemical and Molecular Diagnostics 6.7. Ectoparasitic Nematodes as Vectors of Plant-viruses 6.8. Management PART II. NEMATODE BIOLOGY AND PLANT RESPONSES 7 Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry Roland N. Perry, Denis J. Wright and David J. Chitwood 7.1. Reproduction and Development 7.2. Musculature and Neurobiology 7.3. Biosynthesis 7.4. Respiration and Intermediary Metabolism 7.5. Osmotic and Ionic Regulation and Excretion 7.6. Survival Strategies 8 Behaviour and Sensory Perception Roland N. Perry and Rosane H.C. Curtis 8.1. Sense Organs or Sensilla 8.2. Undulatory Propulsion 8.3. Random Movement 8.4. Movement in Response to Stimuli in Soil 8.5. Nematode Feeding and Movement within Plant Tissue 8.6. Other Types of Movement and Behaviour 9 Molecular Aspects of Plant-Nematode Interactions Godelieve Gheysen and John T. Jones 9.1. Nematode Parasitism of Plants 9.2. Invasion and Migration 9.3. Wound and Defence Responses of the Plant 9.4. Suppression of Host Defences and Protection from Host Responses 9.5. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Nematode Feeding Cells 9.6. Nematode Signals for Feeding Site Induction and Other Processes 9.7. Comparison Between Cyst and Root-knot Nematodes 9.8. Resistance and Avirulence Genes PART III. QUANTITATIVE NEMATOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 10 Plant Growth and Population Dynamics Corrie H. Schomaker and Thomas H. Been 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Relationships of Nematodes with Plants 10.3. Predictors of Yield Reduction 10.4. Different Response Variables of Nematodes 10.5. Stem Nematodes (Ditylenchus dipsaci) 10.6. Root-invading Nematodes 10.7. Effect of Nematicides 10.8. Validation of the Model 10.9. Population Dynamics 11 Distribution Patterns and Sampling Thomas H. Been and Corrie H. Schomaker 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Practical Application 11.3. Horizontal Distribution 11.4. Vertical Distribution 12 International Plant Health - Putting Legislation into Practice Sue Hockland, Renato N. Inserra and Lisa M. Kohl 12.1. Introduction and Terminology 12.2. Historical Considerations 12.3. International Phytosanitary Frameworks 12.4. Early Legislation Enacted against Plant-parasitic Nematodes 12.5. International Phytosanitary Initiatives against Plant-parasitic Nematodes 12.6. Phytosanitary Problems Posed by Plant-parasitic Nematodes 12.7. Determining the Risk Posed by Plant-parasitic Nematodes using Pest Risk Analysis 12.8. Phytosanitary Measures for Plant-parasitic Nematodes 12.9. Phytosanitary Measures and their Associated Cost:Benefits 12.10. Future Challenges for the Control of Regulated Nematodes 12.11. Challenges Facing Scientific Advisers and Researchers 13 Biological and Cultural Management Nicole Viaene, Danny L. Coyne and Keith G. Davies 13.1. Introduction 13.2. Suppressive Soils 13.3. Biological Control Agents 13.4. Interaction with Rhizosphere Microflora 13.5. Applying Biological Control Agents 13.6. Integration of Biological Control with Other Control Measures 13.7. Nematode-free Planting Material 13.8. Sanitation 13.9. Physical Soil Treatments 13.10. Biologically-based Practices 13.11. Amendments 13.12. Time of Planting 13.13. Other Control Practices 14 Nematode Resistance in Crops James L. Starr, Alexander H. Mc Donald and Abiodun O. Claudius-Cole 14.1. Introduction 14.2. Concepts of Resistance 14.3. Inheritance and Mechanisms of Resistance 14.4. Virulence in Nematodes 14.5. Origins and Functions 14.6. Exploitation 14.7. Successes and Opportunities 15 Genetic Engineering for Resistance Amanda Cottage and Peter Urwin 15. 1. Genetic Engineering for Resistance: General Introduction 15. 2. Genetic Engineering for Nematode Resistance: use of Natural Resistances 15.3. Targets in the Early Nematode-Plant Interaction for Engineered Resistance 15.4. Genetic Engineering to Target the Nematode Directly 15.5. Targeting the Nematode Feeding Site 15.6. Stacked Defences 15.7. The Research Approach to Engineering Nematode Resistance 15.8. The Future 16 Chemical Control of Nematodes Patrick P.J. Haydock, Simon R. Woods, Ivan G. Grove and Martin C. Hare 16.1. History and Development of Nematicides 16.2. Active Substances: Chemical Groups and Modes of Action 16.3. Formulation and Application 16.4. Nematicides in the Environment 16.5. Human Safety 16.6. Naturally Occurring Nematicides References Glossary Index

Notă biografică

Professor R.N. Perry works at the Plant Pathology & Microbiology Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK Professor Dr M. Moens is Head of Department of Crop Protection, Agricultural Research Centre, Belgium