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Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications

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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 13 Jan 2017
Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up–to–date account of existing PV technologies in conjunction with an assessment of technological developments.
Key features:
  • Written by leading specialists active in concurrent developments in material sciences, solar cell research and application–driven R&D.
  • Provides a basic knowledge base in light, photons and solar irradiance and basic functional principles of PV.
  • Covers characterization techniques, economics and applications of PV such as silicon, thin–film and hybrid solar cells.
  • Presents a compendium of PV technologies including: crystalline silicon technologies; chalcogenide thin film solar cells; thin–film silicon based PV technologies; organic PV and III–Vs; PV concentrator technologies; space technologies and economics, life–cycle and user aspects of PV technologies.
  • Each chapter presents basic principles and formulas as well as major technological developments in a contemporary context with a look at future developments in this rapidly changing field of science and engineering.
Ideal for industrial engineers and scientists beginning careers in PV as well as graduate students undertaking PV research and high–level undergraduate students.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781118927465
ISBN-10: 111892746X
Pagini: 718
Dimensiuni: 174 x 249 x 40 mm
Greutate: 1.32 kg
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Chichester, United Kingdom

Public țintă

Primary: Industrial engineers and scientists beginning careers in PV; Faculty researchers in PV.
Secondary: graduate students undertaking PV research and high–level undergraduate students.

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up–to–date account of existing PV technologies in conjunction with an assessment of technological developments.  Key features:  Written by leading specialists active in concurrent developments in material sciences, solar cell research and application–driven R&D. Provides a basic knowledge base in light, photons and solar irradiance and basic functional principles of PV. Covers characterization techniques, economics and applications of PV such as silicon, thin–film and hybrid solar cells. Presents a compendium of PV technologies including: crystalline silicon technologies; chalcogenide thin film solar cells; thin–film silicon based PV technologies; organic PV and III–Vs; PV concentrator technologies; space technologies and economics, life–cycle and user aspects of PV technologies. Each chapter presents basic principles and formulas as well as major technological developments in a contemporary context with a look at future developments in this rapidly changing field of science and engineering. Ideal for industrial engineers and scientists beginning careers in PV as well as graduate students undertaking PV research and high–level undergraduate students.

Cuprins

List of Contributors xxvii
Foreword xxxii
Acknowledgments xxxiv
About the Companion Website xxxv
Part One INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOVOLTAICS 1
1.1 Introduction 3
Angèle Reinders, Wilfried van Sark, and Pierre Verlinden
List of Symbols 11
Constants 11
List of Acronyms 11
References 11
Part Two BASIC FUNCTIONAL PRINCIPLES OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 13
2.1 Semiconductor Materials and their Properties 15
Angèle Reinders
List of Symbols 19
List of Acronyms 19
References 20
2.2 Doping, Diffusion, and Defects in Solar Cells 21
Pierre J. Verlinden
List of Symbols 31
List of Acronyms 31
References 31
2.3 Absorption and Generation 32
Seth Hubbard
References 38
2.4 Recombination 39
Seth Hubbard
References 46
2.5 Carrier Transport 47
Seth Hubbard
References 53
2.6 PN Junctions and the Diode Equation 54
Seth Hubbard
Acknowledgments 63
List of Symbols 63
List of Acronyms 65
References 66
Part Three CRYSTALLINE SILICON TECHNOLOGIES 67
3.1 Silicon Materials: Electrical and Optical Properties 69
Andreas Fell
List of Symbols 77
List of Acronyms 77
References 78
3.2 Silicon Solar Cell Device Structures 80
Andrew Blakers and Ngwe Zin
References 90
3.3 Interdigitated Back Contact Solar Cells 92
Pierre Verlinden
3.4 Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells 104
Wilfried van Sark
List of Symbols 110
List of Acronyms 111
References 112
3.5 Surface Passivation and Emitter Recombination Parameters 114
Bram Hoex
List of Symbols 121
List of Acronyms 122
References 122
3.6 Passivated Contacts 125
Martin Hermle
List of Symbols 133
List of Acronyms 133
References 134
3.7 Light Management in Silicon Solar Cells 136
Zachary Holman and Mathieu Boccard
List of Symbols 147
List of Acronyms 148
References 149
3.8 Numerical Simulation of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 150
Pietro Altermatt
References 158
3.9 Advanced Concepts 160
Martin Green
List of Acronyms 166
References 166
Part Four CHALCOGENIDE THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS 167
4.1 Basics of Chalcogenide Thin Film Solar Cells 169
Susanne Siebentritt
List of Symbols 176
List of Acronyms 176
References 176
4.2 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe Absorber Materials and their Properties 179
Sylvain Marsillac
List of Symbols 187
List of Acronyms 187
References 188
4.3 Contacts, Buffers, Substrates, and Interfaces 190
Negar Naghavi
List of Acronyms 200
References 200
4.4 CIGS Module Design and Manufacturing 204
William Shafarman
List of Acronyms 211
References 211
Part Five THIN FILM SILICON BASED PV TECHNOLOGIES 213
5.1 Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells 215
Etienne Moulin, Jan Willem Schüttauf, and Christophe Ballif
List of Symbols 223
References 224
5.2 Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells on Glass 226
Onno Gabriel, Daniel Amkreutz, Jan Haschke, Bernd Rech, and Rutger Schlatmann
Acknowledgments 235
List of Symbols and Acronyms 235
References 236
5.3 Light Management in Crystalline and Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells 238
Franz Haug
List of Symbols 244
List of Acronyms 245
References 245
5.4 New Future Concepts 248
Jan Willem Schüttauf, Etienne Moulin, and Christophe Ballif
List of Symbols 253
References 253
Part Six ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS 255
6.1 Solid State Organic Photovoltaics 257
Bernard Kippelen
Acknowledgments 265
Acronyms 265
References 265
6.2 Hybrid and Dye Sensitized Solar Cells 267
Woojun Yoon
References 275
6.3 Perovskite Solar Cells 277
Samuel D. Stranks and Henry J. Snaith
References 289
6.4 Organic PV Module Design and Manufacturing 292
Veronique S. Gevaerts
List of Acronyms 301
References 302
Part Seven CHARACTERIZATION AND MEASUREMENTS METHODS 303
7.1 Methods and Instruments for the Characterization of Solar Cells 305
Halden Field
List of Symbols 320
List of Acronyms 320
References 320
7.2 Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Characterization in Silicon Photovoltaics 322
Thorsten Trupke
Acknowledgments 334
List of Symbols 334
List of Acronyms 335
References 335
7.3 Measurement of Carrier Lifetime, Surface Recombination Velocity , and Emitter Recombination Parameters 339
Henner Kampwerth
List of Symbols 347
List of Acronyms 348
References 348
7.4 In situ Measurements, Process Control, and Defect Monitoring 350
Angus Rockett
List of Acronyms 360
References 360
7.5 PV Module Performance Testing and Standards 362
Geoffrey S. Kinsey
List of Symbols 368
List of Acronyms 368
References 369
Part Eight III Vs AND PV CONCENTRATOR TECHNOLOGIES 371
8.1 III V Solar Cells Materials, Multi Junction Cells Cell Design and Performance 373
Frank Dimroth
Acknowledgments 380
List of Acronyms 380
References 380
8.2 New and Future III V Cells and Concepts 383
Simon Fafard
List of Acronyms and Symbols 393
References 393
8.3 High Concentration PV Systems 396
Karin Hinzer, Christopher E. Valdivia, and John P.D. Cook
List of Acronyms 408
References 409
8.4 Operation of CPV Power Plants: Energy Prediction 411
Geoffrey S. Kinsey
List of Acronyms 418
References 418
8.5 The Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) 420
Michael Debije
List of Symbols 428
List of Acronyms 428
References 429
Part Nine SPACE TECHNOLOGIES 431
9.1 Materials, Cell Structures, and Radiation Effects 433
Rob Walters
List of Symbols and Units 442
References 442
9.2 Space PV Systems and Flight Demonstrations 444
Phillip Jenkins
Acknowledgments 453
List of Acronyms 453
References 454
9.3 A Vision on Future Developments in Space Photovoltaics 455
David Wilt
List of Symbols 461
List of Acronyms 461
References 462
Part Ten PV MODULES AND MANUFACTURING 463
10.1 Manufacturing of Various PV Technologies 465
Alison Lennon and Rhett Evans
Acknowledgements 474
List of Abbreviations 474
References 474
10.2 Encapsulant Materials for PV Modules 478
Michael Kempe
Acknowledgments 488
List of Symbols 488
List of Acronyms 488
References 489
10.3 Reliability and Durability of PV Modules 491
Sarah Kurtz
Acknowledgments 500
References 501
10.4 Advanced Module Concepts 502
Pierre Verlinden
List of Symbols 508
List of Acronyms 508
References 509
Part Eleven PV SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS 511
11.1 Grid–Connected PV Systems 513
Greg J. Ball
Acknowledgments 527
List of Acronyms 528
References 529
11.2 Inverters, Power Optimizers, and Microinverters 530
Chris Deline
List of Symbols 537
List of Acronyms 537
References 538
11.3 Stand–Alone and Hybrid PV Systems 539
Matthias Vetter and Georg Bopp
References 552
11.4 PV System Monitoring and Characterization 553
Wilfried van Sark, Atse Louwen, Odysseas Tsafarakis, and Panos Moraitis
Acknowledgments 561
List of Symbols 561
List of Acronyms 562
References 562
11.5 Energy Prediction and System Modeling 564
Joshua S. Stein
List of Symbols and Acronyms 575
References 577
11.6 Building Integrated Photovoltaics 579
Michiel Ritzen, Zeger Vroon, and Chris Geurts
List of Acronyms 588
References 588
11.7 Product Integrated Photovoltaics 590
Angèle Reinders and Georgia Apostolou
List of Acronym 598
References 598
Part Twelve PV DEPLOYMENT IN DISTRIBUTION GRIDS 601
12.1 PV Systems in Smart Energy Homes: PowerMatching City 603
Albert van den Noort
List of Acronyms 610
References 611
12.2 New Future Solutions: Best Practices from European PV Smart Grid Projects 612
Gianluca Fulli and Flavia Gangale
List of Acronyms 619
References 619
Part Thirteen SUPPORTING METHODS AND TOOLS 621
13.1 The Economics of PV Systems 623
Matthew Campbell
List of Acronyms 633
References 633
13.2 People s Involvement in Residential PV and their Experiences 634
Barbara van Mierlo
References 644
13.3 Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaics 646
Vasilis Fthenakis
References 656
13.4 List of International Standards Related to PV 658
Pierre Verlinden and Wilfried van Sark
Acknowledgements 671
References 671
Index 672

Notă biografică

Prof Angèle Reinders, University of Twente, The Netherlands
Angèle Reinders is currently an associate professor of Sustainable Energy at the University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, and visiting professor of Energy–Efficient Design at TU Delft, The Netherlands
Dr Pierre Verlinden, Trina Solar, China  
Pierre Verlinden is Vice–President and Chief Scientist at Trina Solar , and adjunct professor at Sun–Yat sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Prof Wilfried van Sark, Utrecht University, The Netherlands 
Wilfried van Sark is an associate professor at Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Prof Alexandre Freundlich, University of Houston, USA 
Alexandre Freundlich is a research professor of physics and electrical and computer engineering at the University of Houston.