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Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation in Engineering Materials Science: From Fundamentals to Applications

Editat de Peter Staron, Andreas Schreyer, Helmut Clemens, Svea Mayer
Notă GoodReads:
en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 22 Mar 2017
Retaining its proven concept, the second edition of this ready reference specifically addresses the need of materials engineers for reliable, detailed information on modern material characterization methods.

As such, it provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure–property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization.

The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three–dimensional X–ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to problems in materials science.

With thoroughly revised and updated chapters and now containing about 20%
new material, this is the must–have, in–depth resource on this highly relevant topic.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9783527335923
ISBN-10: 3527335927
Pagini: 488
Dimensiuni: 180 x 249 x 29 mm
Greutate: 1.18 kg
Ediția: 2nd Edition
Editura: Wiley Vch
Locul publicării: Weinheim, Germany

Public țintă

Materials Scientists, Solid State Physicists, Spectroscopists, Physical Chemists, Solid State Chemists, Surface Physicists, Libraries

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Retaining its proven concept, the second edition of this ready reference specifically addresses the need of materials engineers for reliable, detailed information on modern material characterization methods.

As such, it provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure–property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization.

The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three–dimensional X–ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to problems in materials science.

With thoroughly revised and updated chapters and now containing about 20% new material, this is the must–have, in–depth resource on this highly relevant topic.

Cuprins

List of Contributor XVII
Preface to Second Edition XXIII
Part I General 1
1 Microstructure and Properties of Engineering Materials 3
Helmut Clemens, Svea Mayer, and Christina Scheu
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Microstructure 4
1.3 Microstructure and Properties 10
1.4 Microstructural Characterization 12
2 Internal Stresses in Engineering Materials 21
Anke Kaysser–Pyzalla
2.1 Definition 21
2.2 Origin of Residual Macro– and Microstresses 25
2.3 Relevance 45
3 Textures in Engineering Materials 55
Heinz G. Brokmeier and Sangbong Yi
3.1 Introduction 55
3.2 Measurement of Preferred Orientations 58
3.3 Presentation of Preferred Orientations 59
3.4 Interpretation of Textures 62
3.5 Errors 67
4 Physical Properties of Photons and Neutrons 73
Andreas Schreyer
4.1 Introduction 73
4.2 Interaction of X–ray Photons and Neutrons with Individual Atoms 74
4.3 Scattering of X–ray Photons and Neutrons from Ensembles of Atoms 79
5 Radiation Sources 83
5.1 Generation and Properties of Neutrons 83
Ina Lommatzsch,Wolfgang Knop, Philipp K. Pranzas, and Peter Schreiner
5.2 Production and Properties of Synchrotron Radiation 90
Rolf Treusch
Part II Methods 105
6 Stress Analysis by Angle–Dispersive Neutron Diffraction 107
Peter Staron
6.1 Introduction 107
6.2 Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis 108
6.3 Measurement and Data Analysis 112
6.4 Examples 116
6.5 Summary and Outlook 120
7 Stress Analysis by Energy–Dispersive Neutron Diffraction 123
Javier Santisteban
7.1 Introduction 123
7.2 Time–of–Flight Neutron Diffraction 123
7.3 TOF Strain Scanners 126
7.4 A Virtual Laboratory for Strain Scanning 131
7.5 Type II Stresses: Evolution of Intergranular Stresses 134
7.6 Type III Stresses: Dislocation Densities 135
7.7 Strain Imaging by Energy–Dispersive Neutron Transmission 138
7.8 Conclusions 140
8 Residual Stress Analysis by Monochromatic High–Energy X–rays 145
René V. Martins
8.1 Basic Setups 145
8.2 Principle of Slit Imaging and Data Reconstruction 148
8.3 The Conical Slit 149
8.4 The Spiral Slit 152
8.5 Simultaneous Strain Measurements in Individual Bulk Grains 155
8.6 Coarse Grain Effects 156
8.7 Analysis of Diffraction Data from Area Detectors 157
8.8 Matrix for Comparison and Decision Taking Which Technique to Use for a Specific Problem 158
9 Residual Stress Analysis by Energy–Dispersive Synchrotron X–ray Diffraction 161
Christoph Genzel and Manuela Klaus
9.1 Introduction 161
9.2 Fundamentals of Energy–Dispersive X–ray Diffraction Stress Analysis 162
9.3 Experimental Setup 167
9.4 Examples for Energy–Dispersive Stress Analysis 168
9.5 Final Remarks 173
10 Texture Analyses by Synchrotron X–rays and Neutrons 179
Sangbong Yi, Weimin Gan, and Heinz G. Brokmeier
10.1 Texture Measurements on Laboratory Scale 179
10.2 Texture Measurements at Large Scale Facilities 182
10.3 Conclusion 193
11 Basics of Small–Angle Scattering Methods 197
Philipp K. Pranzas
11.1 Introduction 197
11.2 Common Features of a SAS Instrument 197
11.3 Contrast 198
11.4 Scattering Curve 198
11.5 Power Law/Scattering by Fractal Systems 200
11.6 Guinier and Porod Approximations 201
11.7 Macroscopic Differential Scattering Cross–section 202
11.8 Model Calculation of Size Distributions 202
11.9 Magnetic Structures 203
12 Small–Angle Neutron Scattering 207
Philipp K. Pranzas and André Heinemann
12.1 Introduction 207
12.2 Nanocrystalline Magnesium Hydride for the Reversible Storage of Hydrogen 208
12.3 Precipitates in Steel 210
12.4 SiO2 Nanoparticles in a Polymer Matrix An Industrial Application 213
12.5 Green Surfactants 213
13 Anomalous Small–Angle X–ray Scattering 217
Ulla Vainio
13.1 Introduction 217
13.2 Theory 218
13.3 Experiments 223
13.4 Example: ASAXS on Catalyst Nanoparticles 223
13.5 Summary and Outlook 223
14 Imaging 227
Wolfgang Treimer
14.1 Radiography 227
14.2 Tomography 240
14.3 New Developments in Neutron Tomography 244
15 Neutron and Synchrotron–Radiation–Based Imaging for Applications in Materials Science From Macro– to Nanotomography 253
Felix Beckmann
15.1 Introduction 253
15.2 Parallel–Beam Tomography 256
15.3 Macrotomography Using Neutrons 258
15.4 Microtomography Using Synchrotron Radiation 264
15.5 Summary and Outlook 271
16 Mu–Tomography of Engineering Materials 275
Astrid Haibel and Julia Herzen
16.1 Introduction 275
16.2 Advantage of Synchrotron Tomography 275
16.3 Applications and 3D Image Analysis 276
16.4 Image Artifacts 282
16.5 Summary 286
Part III New and Emerging Methods 291
17 3D X–ray Diffraction Microscope 293
Henning F. Poulsen,Wolfgang Ludwig, and Søren Schmidt
17.1 Basic Setup and Strategy 294
17.2 Indexing and Characterization of Average Properties of Each Grain 296
17.3 Mapping of Grains and Orientations 300
17.4 Combining 3DXRD and Tomography 304
17.5 Outlook 305
18 3D Micron–Resolution Laue Diffraction 309
Gene E. Ice
18.1 Introduction 309
18.2 The Need for Polychromatic Microdiffraction 309
18.3 Theoretical Basis for Advanced Polychromatic Microdiffraction 311
18.4 Technical Developments for an Automated 3D Probe 313
18.5 Research Examples 318
18.6 Future Prospects and Opportunities 324
Part IV Applications 327
19 The Use of Neutron and Synchrotron Research for Aerospace and Automotive Materials and Components 329
Wolfgang Kaysser, Jörg Eßlinger, Volker Abetz, Norbert Huber, Karl U. Kainer, Thomas Klassen, Florian Pyczak, Andreas Schreyer, and Peter Staron
19.1 Introduction 329
19.2 Commercial Passenger Aircraft 331
19.3 The Light–Duty Automotive Vehicle 341
19.4 Other Transport Systems 352
20 In situ Experiments with Synchrotron High–Energy X–rays and Neutrons 365
Peter Staron, Torben Fischer, Thomas Lippmann, Andreas Stark, Shahrokh Daneshpour, Dirk Schnubel, Eckart Uhlmann, Robert Gerstenberger, Bettina Camin, Walter Reimers, Elisabeth Eidenberger–Schober, Helmut Clemens, Norbert Huber, and Andreas Schreyer
20.1 Introduction 365
20.2 In situ Dilatometry 366
20.3 In situ Study on Single Overload of Fatigue–Cracked Specimens 368
20.4 In situ Cutting Experiment 370
20.5 In situ Study of Precipitation Kinetics Using Neutrons 372
20.6 Conclusions 373
21 Application of Photons and Neutrons for the Characterization and Development of Advanced Steels 377
Elisabeth Eidenberger–Schober, Ronald Schnitzer, Gerald A. Zickler, Michael Eidenberger–Schober,Michael Bischof, Peter Staron, Harald Leitner, Andreas Schreyer, and Helmut Clemens
21.1 Introduction 377
21.2 Characterization Using Synchrotron Radiation 378
21.3 Characterization Using Small–Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) 382
21.4 Conclusions 388
22 The Contribution of High–Energy X–rays and Neutrons to Characterization and Development of Intermetallic Titanium Aluminides 395
Thomas Schmoelzer, Klaus–Dieter Liss, Peter Staron, Andreas Stark, Emanuel Schwaighofer, Thomas Lippmann, Helmut Clemens, and Svea Mayer
22.1 Introduction 395
22.2 High–Energy X–rays and Neutrons 396
22.3 In situ Investigation of Phase Evolution 398
22.4 Atomic Order and Disorder in TiAl Alloys 409
22.5 Recovery and Recrystallization during Deformation of TiAl 412
22.6 Lattice Parameter and Thermal Expansion 418
22.7 Conclusions 419
23 In situ Mu–Laue: Instrumental Setup for the Deformation of Micron Sized Samples 425
Christoph Kirchlechner, Jozef Keckes, Jean S.Micha, and Gerhard Dehm
23.1 Introduction 425
23.2 Experimental Instrumentation 427
23.3 Discussion 433
23.4 Conclusion 436
24 Residual Stresses in Thin Films and Coated Tools: Challenges and Strategies for Their Nondestructive Analysis by X–ray Diffraction Methods 439
Manuela Klaus and Christoph Genzel
24.1 Introduction 439
24.2 Compilation of Approaches to Meet the Challenges in Thin Film X–ray Stress Analysis (XSA) 441
24.3 Final Remarks and Recommendations 447
Index 451

Notă biografică

Born in 1962, Peter Staron studied Physics at the University of Hamburg and gained his doctorate from the University of Hamburg in 1997. Starting with the PhD thesis, he worked at the Institute of Materials Research of the Helmholtz–Zentrum Geesthacht and dedicated his work to the use of neutron scattering techniques in materials science with a focus on residual stresses, precipitation kinetics and programming. In 2008 he included high–energy X–rays in his work and started giving a lecture on scattering methods in engineering materials research at the Montanuniversität Leoben.

Born in 1963, Andreas Schreyer studied physics and geophysics at the Ruhr–Universität Bochum, gaining his doctorate in 1994 and his lecturing qualification in 2000. In 2001 he became Professor at the University of Hamburg and the head of the Department Materials Characterization with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation at the Helmholtz–Zentrum Geesthacht. From 2006 to 2016 he was head of the Institute of Materials Research at the Helmholtz–Zentrum Geesthacht responsible for Materials Physics. Between 2008 and 2015 Professor Schreyer has been the spokesperson of the Helmholtz Program "From Matter to Materials and Life" of the Helmholtz Association coordinating all activities in the field of large–scale facilities for synchrotron radiation, neutrons, ions, and highest electromagnetic fields.
In 2016 he moved to the European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, where he is the Director for Science.

Born in 1957, Helmut Clemens studied materials science at the Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria, gaining his doctorate in 1987. He joined Plansee AG, Austria, as head of the Advanced Materials R&D group in 1990, gaining his lecturing qualification in 1997. From 1998 to 2000 he was Professor for Metallic Materials at the Institute for Physical Metallurgy, University of Stuttgart, before moving to the Institute for Materials Research, Helmholtz–Zentrum, Geesthacht, in a joint appointment as Professor at the University of Kiel. Since July 2003 he is head of the Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing at the Montanuniversität Leoben. Professor Clemens has won several awards, including the prestigious Honda Prize.

Born in 1981, Svea Mayer studied materials science at the Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria, and received her PhD in 2009. Since then, she is leading the working group on phase transformations and high–temperature materials at the Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben. In 2011 she was accepted as assistant professor and started lecturing. Her prime research topic is the use of neutrons and synchrotron radiation for the development of novel high–temperature materials.
She is member of review panels and for her academic achievements she was awarded with the Georg–Sachs–Prize of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V.