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Nanotechnology for Energy Sustainability: 3 Volume Set (Applications of Nanotechnology)

Editat de Baldev Raj, Marcel Van de Voorde, Yashwant Mahajan
Notă GoodReads:
en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 05 Apr 2017

In three handy volumes, this ready reference provides a detailed overview of nanotechnology as it is applied to energy sustainability. Clearly structured, following an introduction, the first part of the book is dedicated to energy production, renewable energy, energy storage, energy distribution, and energy conversion and harvesting. The second part then goes on to discuss nano–enabled materials, energy conservation and management, technological and intellectual property–related issues and markets and environmental remediation. The text concludes with a look at and recommendations for future technology advances.
An essential handbook for all experts in the field – from academic researchers and engineers to developers in industry.

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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9783527340149
ISBN-10: 3527340149
Pagini: 1316
Dimensiuni: 181 x 259 x 93 mm
Greutate: 3.76 kg
Editura: Wiley Vch
Seria Applications of Nanotechnology

Locul publicării: Weinheim, Germany

Public țintă

Materials Scientists, Environmental Chemists, Power Engineers, Energy Supplying Companies, Engineers in Power Technology, Chemical Engineers, Chemical Industry, Libraries

Cuprins

Foreword by Prof. Dr. Dr. hc. Mult. Herbert Gleiter XXXV
Foreword by Prof. Dr. Joachim Maier XXXVII
Foreword by Prof. C.N.R. RAO, F.R.S. XXXIX
Perspective on the Book on Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy by Prof. Tu Hailing XLI
A Way Forward by Baldev Raj, Marcel Van de Voorde, and Yashwant Mahajan XLV
Introduction by Baldev Raj, Marcel Van de Voorde, and Yashwant Mahajan LIII
Volume 1
Part One Energy Production 1
1 Fossil Fuels: The Effect of Zeolite Catalyst Particle Morphology on Catalyst Performance in the Conversion of Methanol to Hydrocarbons 3
Katarzyna Anna ukaszuk, Pablo del Campo Huertas, Andrea Molino, Malte Nielsen, Daniel Rojo–Gama, Juan Salvador Martinez–Espin, Karl Petter Lillerud, Unni Olsbye, Silvia Bordiga, Pablo Beato, and Stian Svelle
1.1 Zeolites and Zeotypes as Nanocatalysts for Petroleum and Natural Gas 3
1.2 Modification of Porosity: Hierarchical Zeolites 4
1.3 Modification of Size and Morphology 8
1.4 Tools to Predict and Characterize Zeolite Morphology 14
1.5 Tailor–Made Catalysts for the Methanol–to–Hydrocarbons (MTH) Reaction 18
1.6 Summary and Outlook 29
Acknowledgments 30
References 30
2 Fossil Fuels: Nanotechnologies for Petroleum Reservoir Engineering 41
Igor N. Evdokimov
2.1 Introduction 41
2.2 Addition of Nanosized Colloidal Particles to Technological Fluids 42
2.3 Indigenous Nanocolloidal Particles in Native Petroleum Fluids 51
2.4 Conclusions 53
2.5 Appendix 54
References 55
3 Fossil Fuels: Coke–Resistant Nanomaterials for Gas–to–Liquid (GTL) Fuels 59
Brian A. Rosen and Sarika Singh
3.1 Introduction to Gas–to–Liquid (GTL) Technology 59
3.2 A Thermodynamic View of Catalyst Coking 60
3.3 Tuning of Active Sites to Resist Coking 65
3.4 Methods for Characterizing Carbon Deposits 71
3.5 Summary and Outlook 79
References 79
4 Photovoltaics: Light Energy Harvesting with Plasmonic Nanoparticle Networks 83
Jean–Paul Hugonin, Mondher Besbes, and Philippe Ben–Abdallah
4.1 Introduction 83
4.2 Light Absorption by a Single Particle 84
4.3 Light Absorption by a Collection of Particles 86
4.4 Upper Bound for Light Absorption in Nanoparticle Networks 89
4.5 Light Absorption Beyond the Dipolar Approximation 91
4.6 Design of Absorption Spectrum with Plasmonic Particles 93
4.7 Concluding Remarks 97
Acknowledgments 97
References 98
5 Photovoltaics: Role of Nanotechnology in Dye–Sensitized Solar Cells 101
Murugesan Janani, Shantikumar V. Nair, and A. Sreekumaran Nair
5.1 Nanotechnology and Its Relevance 101
5.2 A Brief History on Dye–Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 102
5.3 Construction and Working of DSSCs 103
5.4 Transparent Conducting Substrate 104
5.5 Semiconductor Materials 105
5.6 Nanotechnology vis à vis Renewable Energy Industry 105
5.7 Nanotechnology vis à vis Dye–Sensitized Solar Cells 105
5.8 Sensitizer 118
5.9 Plasmonics 122
5.10 Counter Electrode 124
5.11 Conclusions 127
References 128
6 Photovoltaics: Nanomaterials for Photovoltaic Conversion 133
Abdelilah Slaoui, Daniel Lincot, Jean François Guillemoles, and Ludovic Escoubas
6.1 Introduction 133
6.2 Photovoltaic Materials and Technologies: State of the Art 134
6.3 Nanomaterials for Photovoltaics 137
6.4 Conclusion and Outlook 157
References 158
7 Photovoltaics: Light–Trapping in Crystalline Silicon and Thin–Film Solar Cells by Nanostructured Optical Coatings 163
Pierpaolo Spinelli, B.K. Newman, and A. Polman
7.1 Introduction 163
7.2 Crystalline Si Solar Cells 165
7.3 Nanostructured Coatings for Thin–Film Solar Cells 171
7.4 Other PV Applications of Resonant Nanostructures 176
7.5 Summary 177
References 178
8 Photovoltaics: Nanoengineered Materials and Their Functionality in Solar Cells 181
Kaining Ding, Thomas Kirchartz, Karsten Bittkau, Andreas Lambertz, Vladimir Smirnov, Jürgen Hüpkes, and Uwe Rau
8.1 Introduction 181
8.2 Functional Elements of a Solar Cell 182
8.3 Transparent and Conductive Front Electrodes 185
8.4 Nanostructured Contact Material 187
8.5 Nanostructured Absorber Materials 191
8.6 Back Electrodes and Intermediate Layer 196
8.7 Conclusions 200
References 200
9 Nonselective Coatings for Solar Thermal Applications in CSP 207
Raj Kumar Bera, Daniel Mandler, and Shlomo Magdassi
9.1 Introduction 207
9.2 Materials 210
9.3 Fabrication Methods 212
9.4 Performance 215
9.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonselective Overselective Coatings 227
9.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 227
9.7 Future Aspects 228
References 229
10 Selective Surfaces for Solar Thermal Energy Conversion in CSP: From Multilayers to Nanocomposites 231
Audrey Soum–Glaude, Laurie Di Giacomo, Sébastien Quoizola, Thomas Laurent, and Gilles Flamant
10.1 Introduction 231
10.2 State of the Art on Selective Surfaces for Solar Thermal Energy Conversion 232
10.3 W SiC Multinanolayers as High–Temperature Solar Selective Coatings 237
10.4 Conclusions 243
Acknowledgments 244
References 244
11 Nanobiotechnology Augmenting Biological Gaseous Energy Recovery 249
Shantonu Roy and Debabrata Das
11.1 Introduction 249
11.2 Dark Fermentative Hydrogen Production and Its Improvement Using Nanoparticles 250
11.3 Gaseous Energy Extraction via Biomethanation Process and Improvement of Biomethanation Process Using
Nanoparticles 256
11.4 BioH2 Production via Photofermentation and Role of Nanoparticles in the Improvement of H2 Production 260
11.5 Photocatalytic Conversion of Acetate in Spent Media to H2 262
11.6 Conclusion 265
Acknowledgments 266
References 266
12 Nanotechnologies in Sodium–Cooled Fast Spectrum Reactor and Closed Fuel Cycle Sustainable Nuclear Energy System 271
Baldev Raj and U. Kamachi Mudali
12.1 Introduction 271
12.2 Nanomaterials for Nuclear Systems 273
12.3 Nanosensors, Surface Modification, and Coatings for Reactor and Reprocessing Applications 280
12.4 Surface Modification and Coating Technologies Based on Nanotechnology 285
12.5 Summary 290
Acknowledgments 291
References 291
13 Nanotechnology and Applications for Electric Power: The Perspective of a Major Player in Electricity 295
Didier Noël
13.1 The Context and Perspective of a Global Player in Electricity 295
13.2 The Issue of Nanotechnology for Electric Power 298
13.3 Main Subjects Studied 299
13.4 Social Acceptance and Health Risk 315
13.5 Conclusions 320
Acknowledgments 320
References 320
14 Lightweight Nanostructured Materials and Their Certification for Wind Energy Applications 323
Bikramjit Basu, Sherine Alex, and N. Eswara Prasad
14.1 Introduction 323
14.2 Property Requirements for Wind Energy Applications 326
14.3 Brief Overview on Materials for Wind Energy Applications 332
14.4 Properties of Bulk Ceramic Nanomaterials 339
14.5 Certification 342
14.6 Conclusion and Outlook 346
Acknowledgments 348
References 348
Volume 2
Part Two Energy Storage and Distribution 353
15 Nanostructured Materials for Next–Generation Lithium–Ion Batteries 355
T. Sri Devi Kumari, T. Prem Kumar, and A.K. Shukla
15.1 Introduction 355
15.2 Anode–Active Materials 357
15.3 Cathode–Active Materials 361
15.4 Electrolytes 362
15.5 New Reactions 364
15.6 Safety 367
15.7 Conclusions 369
References 369
16 Carbon Nanotube Materials to Realize High–Performance Supercapacitors 377
Anthony Childress, Jingyi Zhu, Mehmet Karakaya, Deepika Saini, Ramakrishna Podila, and Apparao Rao
16.1 Introduction 377
16.2 CNI s Contributions 380
16.3 Sustainability 386
16.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects 387
Acknowledgment 387
References 387
17 Recent Developments and Prospects of Nanostructured Supercapacitors 391
Katherine L. Van Aken and Yury Gogotsi
17.1 Introduction 391
17.2 Properties of Supercapacitors 391
17.3 Terminology and Electric Double Layer 393
17.4 Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors 395
17.5 Electrolytes for Electrochemical Capacitors 398
17.6 Electrode Electrolyte Interfaces 400
17.7 Design of Capacitive Energy Storage Devices through Electrode Electrolyte Coupling 404
17.8 Future Outlook and Recommendations 409
Acknowledgments 410
References 410
18 Nanostructured and Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage 415
Lars H. Jepsen, Mark Paskevicius, and Torben R. Jensen
18.1 Introduction 415
18.2 The Weaker Bonds Formed by Hydrogen 417
18.3 The Stronger Bonds Formed by Hydrogen 418
18.4 Conclusion 427
References 427
19 Nanotechnology for the Storage of Hydrogen 433
Marek Nowak and Mieczyslaw Jurczyk
19.1 Introduction 433
19.2 Nanotechnology 433
19.3 Intermetallics–Based Hydrides with Nanostructure 440
19.4 Nanocomposite–Based Hydrides 452
19.5 Summary 456
References 456
20 Phase Change Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage 459
Kinga Pielichowska and Krzysztof Pielichowski
20.1 Introduction 459
20.2 Nanoenhanced PCMs 461
20.3 Nanostructured PCMs 476
20.4 Conclusions 478
Acknowledgment 479
References 479
21 Carbon Nanotube Wires and Cables: Near–Term Applications and Future Perspectives 485
Jeremy Lee and Seeram Ramakrishna
21.1 Introduction 485
21.2 Carbon Nanotube Wires and Cables 490
21.3 Applications of CNT Wires and Cables 500
21.4 Conclusion 502
Acknowledgments 502
References 502
Part Three Energy Conversion and Harvesting 507
22 Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: Current Research and Future Challenges 509
Hilaal Alam and Seeram Ramakrishna
22.1 Introduction to Thermoelectricity 509
22.2 Challenges to Increase the Efficiency 511
22.3 Electronic and Phonon Properties 516
22.4 Current Researches: Thermoelectric Nano Materials materials and Their Performances 518
22.5 Future Challenges 530
22.6 Roadmap for the Future Researches 533
22.7 Conclusion 535
References 537
23 Nanostructured Cost–Effective and Energy–Efficient Thermoelectric Materials 547
Zhi–Gang Chen and Jin Zou
23.1 Introduction 547
23.2 Key Parameters for Controlling ZT 548
23.3 Material Requirements 550
23.4 Nanostructure Engineering to Lower Thermal Conductivity 551
23.5 Band Engineering to Enhance the Power Factor 554
23.6 Development of Cost–Effective and Energy–Efficient Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials 555
23.7 Outlook and Future Challenge 559
Acknowledgment 560
References 560
24 Nanomaterials for Fuel Cell Technology 569
K.S. Dhathathreyan, N. Rajalakshmi, and R. Balaji
24.1 Introduction 569
24.2 Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell and Fuel Cells Operating on Small Organic Molecules 569
24.3 Role of Nanomaterials in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 579
24.4 Conclusion 585
References 586
25 Contributions of Nanotechnology to Hydrogen Production 597
Sambandam Anandan, Femi Thomas Cheruvathoor, and Muthupandian Ashokkumar
25.1 Introduction 597
25.2 Photocatalytic Water Splitting Reaction 598
25.3 Nano Semiconductor Materials for Photocatalytic Water Splitting 600
25.4 Summary 624
Acknowledgment 624
References 625
26 Nanoenhanced Materials for Photolytic Hydrogen Production 629
Xiuquan Gu, Shuai Yuan, Mingguo Ma, and Jiefang Zhu
26.1 Introduction 629
26.2 Basic Principle and Evaluation Methods for Photolytic H2 Production 630
26.3 Photolytic H2 Evolution Based on Nanoenhanced Materials 632
26.4 Conclusion and Outlook 645
Acknowledgments 646
References 646
27 Human Vibration Energy Harvester with PZT 649
Tamil Selvan Ramadoss and Seeram Ramakrishna
27.1 Introduction to Micro Energy Harvesting 649
27.2 Human Vibration Energy Harvester with PZT 655
27.3 Alternative Design of Cantilever Piezoelectric Energy Harvester 660
27.4 Stress Distribution Simulation for Different Surface Shapes 664
27.5 Variable Profile Thickness of the Metal Shim 666
27.6 Comparison of Stress Distribution for Various Surface Shapes and Profiles 671
27.7 Output Power Comparison of Various Profiles 672
27.8 Conclusion 673
Acknowledgment 674
References 674
28 Energy Consumption in Information and Communication Technology: Role of Semiconductor Nanotechnology 679
Victor V. Zhirnov and Kota V.R.M. Murali
28.1 Introduction 679
28.2 Elements of Information Processing 681
28.3 Energy Consumption in Computing: From Bits to Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS) 687
28.4 Fundamental Physics of Binary Operations 690
28.5 Opportunities for Beyond the Current Information and Communication Technology Paradigm 701
References 704
Volume 3
Part Four Nanoenabled Materials and Coatings for Energy Applications 707
29 Nanocrystalline Bainitic Steels for Industrial Applications 709
C. Garcia–Mateo and F.G. Caballero
29.1 Introduction 709
29.2 Design of Nanocrystalline Steel Grades: Scientific Concepts 709
29.3 Microstructure and Properties 712
29.4 Summary 721
Acknowledgments 721
References 722
30 Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Energy Storage 725
Edward P. Randviir and Craig E. Banks
30.1 Graphene Hits the Headlines 725
30.2 Graphene: Why All the Fuss? 726
30.3 Graphene and Graphene Oxide in Energy Storage Devices 727
30.4 Graphene and Graphene Oxide in Energy Generation Devices 734
References 741
31 Inorganic Nanotubes and Fullerene–Like Nanoparticles at the Crossroad between Materials Science and Nanotechnology and Their Applications with Regard to Sustainability 745
Leela S. Panchakarla and Reshef Tenne
31.1 Introduction 745
31.2 Synthesis and Structural Characterization 746
31.3 Doping Inorganic Fullerenes/Nanotubes 757
31.4 Applications 758
31.5 Fullerenes and Nanotubular Structures from Misfit Layered Compounds 764
31.6 Conclusions 776
References 776
32 Nanotechnology, Energy, and Fractals Nature 781
Vojislav V. Mitic , Ljubis a M. Kocic , Steven Tidrow, and Hans–Jörg Fecht
32.1 Introduction 781
32.2 Short Introduction to Fractals 782
32.3 Nanosizes and Fractals 784
32.4 Energy and Fractals 788
32.5 Toward Fractal Nanoelectronics 793
32.6 The Goldschmidt s Tolerance Factor, Clausius Mossotti Relation, Curie, and Curie Weiss Law Bridge to Fractal Nanoelectronics Contribution 797
32.7 Summary 803
Acknowledgment 805
References 805
33 Magnesium Based Nanocomposites for Cleaner Transport 809
Manoj Gupta and Sankaranarayanan Seetharaman
33.1 Introduction 809
33.2 Fabrication of Magnesium–based Nanocomposites 811
33.3 Mechanical Properties and Corrosion 814
33.4 Engineering Properties 822
33.5 Potential Applications in Transport Industries 824
33.6 Challenges 825
33.7 Conclusions 825
References 826
34 Nanocomposites: A Gaze through Their Applications in Transport Industry 831
Kottan Renganayagalu Ravi, Jayakrishnan Nampoothiri, and Baldev Raj
34.1 Introduction 831
34.2 Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites in Transport Sector 832
34.3 Lightweight High–strength Metal Matrix Nanocomposites 838
34.4 Ceramic Matrix Nanocomposites in Transport Industry 845
34.5 Nanocomposite Coating 849
34.6 Challenges and Opportunities for Nanocomposites 849
References 851
35 Semiconducting Nanowires in Photovoltaic and Thermoelectric Energy Generation 857
Guglielmo Vastola and Gang Zhang
35.1 Introduction 857
35.2 Fabrication of Silicon and Silicon Germanium Nanowires 858
35.3 Nanowire–based Photovoltaics 865
35.4 Introduction of Thermoelectric Effects 871
35.5 Thermal Conductivity of Silicon Nanowires 874
35.6 Thermoelectric Property of Silicon Nanowires 876
35.7 Thermoelectric Property of Silicon Germanium Nanowires 877
35.8 Thermoelectric Property of Other Nanowires 879
References 881
36 Nanoliquid Metal Technology Toward High–Performance Energy Management, Conversion, and Storage 887
Jing Liu
36.1 Introduction 887
36.2 Typical Properties of Nanoliquid Metal 889
36.3 Emerging Applications of Nanoliquid Metal in Energy Areas 892
36.4 Challenging Scientific and Technological Issues 904
36.5 Summary 906
Acknowledgment 907
References 907
37 IoNanofluids: Innovative Agents for Sustainable Development 911
Carlos Nieto de Castro, Xavier Paredes, Salomé Vieira, Sohel Murshed, Maria José Lourenço, and Fernando Santos
37.1 Introduction 911
37.2 IoNanofluids: Nature, Definitions, Preparation, and Structure Characterization 912
37.3 IoNanofluids Properties 920
37.4 Applications of IoNanofluids 926
37.5 Challenges in IoNanofluids Research 930
37.6 Challenges to Industrial Applications 931
Acknowledgments 932
References 932
Part Five Energy Conservation and Management 937
38 Silica Aerogels for Energy Conservation and Saving 939
Yamini Ananthan, K. Keerthi Sanghamitra, and Neha Hebalkar
38.1 Introduction 939
38.2 Thermal Insulation Materials 940
38.3 Aerogels 940
38.4 Preparation 944
38.5 Aerogels in Various Forms: Monoliths, Granules, and Sheets 945
38.6 Thermal Insulation Applications 954
38.7 Energy Saving and Conservation Using Aerogel Products 960
38.8 Challenges and Future Perspectives 961
38.9 Safety and Hazard Measures 962
38.10 Summary 962
Acknowledgments 963
References 963
39 Nanotechnology in Architecture 967
George Elvin
39.1 Nanotechnology and Green Building 967
39.2 Energy 969
39.3 Air and Water 978
39.4 Materials 980
39.5 Nanosensors 990
39.6 Environmental and Health Concerns 991
References 992
40 Nanofluids for Efficient Heat Transfer Applications 997
Baldev Raj, S.A. Angayarkanni, and John Philip
40.1 Introduction 997
40.2 Traditional Nanofluids 999
40.3 CNT–Based Nanofluids 1008
40.4 Magnetic Nanofluids 1009
40.5 Graphene Nanofluids 1012
40.6 Hybrid Nanofluid 1013
40.7 Thermal Conductivity of Phase Change Material 1015
40.8 Conclusions 1018
Acknowledgment 1019
References 1019
Part Six Technologies, Intellectual Property, and Markets 1029
41 Nanomaterials for Li–Ion Batteries: Patents Landscape and Product Scenario 1031
Md Shakeel Iqbal, Nisha C. Kalarickal, Vivek Patel, and Ratnesh Kumar Gaur
41.1 Introduction 1031
41.2 Lithium–Ion Battery: Basic Concepts 1031
41.3 Advantages of Nanostructured Materials 1034
41.4 Patent Analysis 1035
41.5 Technology Analysis 1038
41.6 Commercial Status of Nano–Enabled Li–Ion Batteries 1050
41.7 Market 1051
41.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 1051
References 1053
42 Nanotechnology in Fuel Cells: A Bibliometric Analysis 1057
Manish Sinha, Ratnesh Kumar Gaur, and Harshad Karmarkar
42.1 Introduction 1057
42.2 Literature Analysis 1058
42.3 Patent Landscaping 1061
42.4 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Patent Analysis 1067
42.5 Technology Analysis 1070
42.6 Scenario of Commercial Products Can Be Moved after Future Perspectives 1075
42.7 Future Perspectives 1077
42.8 Conclusion 1077
Acknowledgments 1078
43 Techno–Commercial Opportunities of Nanotechnology in Wind Energy 1079
Vivek Patel and Y.R. Mahajan
43.1 Introduction 1079
43.2 Wind Energy Industry Requirements 1080
43.3 Growth Drivers 1081
43.4 Challenges 1081
43.5 Applications 1083
43.6 Intellectual Property Scenario 1094
43.7 Products Outlook 1098
43.8 Future Development and Directions 1100
43.9 Conclusion 1102
Acknowledgment 1103
References 1103
Part Seven Environmental Remediation 1107
44 Nanomaterials for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Renewable Fuels and Value–Added Products 1109
Ibram Ganesh
44.1 Introduction: Dealing with the Waste Stream Greenhouse CO2 Gas 1109
44.2 Theoretical Potentials for Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 1112
44.3 CO2 Speciation versus Electrolyte pH 1120
44.4 Effect of Particle Size on Electrode Performance in Electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction 1125
44.5 Effect of Particle Size on the Efficiency of Aqueous–Based CO2 Reduction Reactions 1126
44.6 Effect of Particle Size on the Efficiency of Nonaqueous–Based CO2 Reduction Reactions 1129
44.7 Reverse Microbial Fuel Cells: The Practical Artificial Leaves 1133
44.8 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 1136
Acknowledgments 1136
References 1136
45 Nanomaterial–Based Methods for Cleaning Contaminated Water in Oil Spill Sites 1139
Boris I. Kharisov, H.V. Rasika Dias, Oxana V. Kharissova, and Yolanda Peña Méndez
45.1 Introduction 1139
45.2 Inorganic Nanomaterials and Composites 1141
45.3 Nanosized Natural and Synthetic Polymers 1151
45.4 Nanomaterials–Based Membranes 1153
45.5 Aerogels 1153
45.6 Toxicity, Cost, and Selection of Nanomaterials for Water Cleanup from Oil 1154
45.7 Conclusions and Further Outlook 1155
References 1156
46 Nanomaterials and Direct Air Capture of CO2 1161
Dirk Fransaer
46.1 Introduction 1161
46.2 CO2 as a Resource 1163
46.3 Circular CO2 Economy 1165
46.4 CO2 Capture or Separation Technologies 1165
46.5 New Roads into CO2 Capture: Direct Air Capture and Nanomaterials 1168
46.6 Nanomaterials 1169
46.7 Carbon Nanotubes 1171
46.8 Conclusion 1174
References 1174
Index 1179


Notă biografică

Baldev Raj is Professor and Director of the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) in Bengaluru, India. He obtained his PhD from the Indian Institute of Science (IISc.) in Bangalore, India, in 1989. He has pursued his work in interdisciplinary domains of energy, cultural heritage, medical technologies, nanoscience and technology and education.
Prof. Raj has authored more than 1100 scientific publications and 70 books. He has been recognized by way of more than 100 awards, 380 honors, keynote, invited lectures and assignments in more than 30 countries. He is a fellow of all major science, engineering and social sciences academies in India.

Marcel Van de Voorde has 40 years` experience in European Research Organisations including CERN–Geneva, European Commission, with 10 years at the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart, Germany. For many years, he was involved in research and research strategies, policy and management, especially in European research institutions. He holds a Professorship at the University of Technology in Delft, the Netherlands, as well as multiple visiting professorships in Europe and worldwide. He holds a doctor honoris causa and various honorary Professorships.
He is senator of the European Academy for Sciences and Arts, in Salzburg and Fellow of the World Academy for Sciences. He is a Fellow of various scientific societies and has been decorated by the Belgian King. He has authored of multiple scientific and technical publications and co–edited multiple books in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Y. R. Mahajan obtained his PhD from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in New York, USA, in 1978. He carried out his postdoctoral research at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA. Then he held various roles as senior scientist at the Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory; associate director, ARC International; associate technology director, Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad, India. Under his leadership, a number of ceramic–based technologies were developed and transferred to industry. Since 2009, he is working as a technical advisor at the Centre for Knowledge Management of Nanoscience and Technology in Telangana, India. Dr. Mahajan has published more than 130 scientific publications and holds 13 patents.