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Modern Organic Synthesis: An Introduction

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en Limba Engleză Carte Paperback – 26 May 2017
Organized into 10 chapters, Modern Organic Synthesis covers key concepts that include retrosynthesis, conformational analysis, and functional group transformations as well as presents the latest developments in organometallic chemistry and C C bond formation. The new edition thoroughly updates the material, examples, and literature references.
Continuing the legacy of its innovative predecessor, this second edition is designed for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to provide them with a necessary background to begin research in either an industry or academic environment.
The authors, all of whom are experienced researchers in organic chemistry, have selected and present the modern techniques and methods likely to be encountered in a synthetic project with examples based on applicability, versatility, and selectivity.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781119086536
ISBN-10: 1119086531
Pagini: 416
Dimensiuni: 216 x 277 x 21 mm
Greutate: 0.95 kg
Ediția: 2nd Edition
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Public țintă

Organic chemistry courses at the advanced undergraduate or first–year graduate levels

Professional chemists in need of an easy–to–read reference on organic chemistry

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Organized into 10 chapters, Modern Organic Synthesis covers key concepts that include retrosynthesis, conformational analysis, and functional group transformations as well as presents the latest developments in organometallic chemistry and C C bond formation. The new edition thoroughly updates the material, examples, and literature references.
Continuing the legacy of its innovative predecessor, this second edition is designed for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to provide them with a necessary background to begin research in either an industry or academic environment.
The authors, all of whom are experienced researchers in organic chemistry, have selected and present the modern techniques and methods likely to be encountered in a synthetic project with examples based on applicability, versatility, and selectivity.

Cuprins

About the Authors ix
Preface to the Second Edition xi
Preface to the First Edition xiii
SyntheticDesign 1
1.1 Retrosynthetic Analysis 1
1.2 Reversal of the Carbonyl Group Polarity (Umpolung) 6
1.3 Steps in Planning a Synthesis 11
1.4 Choice of SyntheticMethod 16
1.5 Domino Reactions (Cascade or Tandem Reactions) 18
1.6 Computer–Assisted Retrosynthetic Analysis 19
References 19
Stereochemical Considerations in Planning Syntheses 21
2.1 Conformational Analysis 21
2.2 Evaluation of Non–Bonded Interactions 25
2.3 Six–Membered Heterocyclic Systems 29
2.4 Polycyclic Ring Systems 30
2.5 Cyclohexyl Systems with sp2–Hybridized Atoms 33
2.6 Significant Energy Difference 35
2.7 Computer–Assisted Molecular Modeling 35
2.8 Reactivity and Product Determination as a Function of Conformation 36
References 42
The Concept of Protecting Functional Groups 45
3.1 Protection of N H Groups 45
3.2 Protection of OH Groups 48
3.3 Protection of Diols as Acetals 55
3.4 Protection of Carbonyl Groups in Aldehydes and Ketones 56
3.5 Protection of the Carboxyl Group 62
3.6 Protection of Double Bonds 66
3.7 Protection of Triple Bonds 66
References 66
Functional Group Transformations 71
4.1 Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones 71
4.2 Reagents and Procedures for Alcohol Oxidation 72
4.3 Chemoselective Oxidizing Agents 76
4.4 Oxidation of Acyloins 79
4.5 Oxidation of Tertiary Allylic Alcohols 79
4.6 Oxidative Procedures to Carboxylic Acids 80
4.7 Allylic Oxidation of Alkenes 82
4.8 Terminology for Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds 85
4.9 Nucleophilic Reducing Agents 86
4.10 Electrophilic Reducing Agents 91
4.11 Regio– and Chemoselective Reductions 93
4.12 Diastereoselective Reductions of Cyclic Ketones 97
4.13 Inversion of Secondary Alcohol Stereochemistry 98
4.14 Diastereofacial Selectivity in Acyclic Systems 99
4.15 Enantioselective Reductions 104
References 108
Functional Group Transformations 115
5.1 Reactions of Carbon Carbon Double Bonds 115
5.2 Reactions of Carbon Carbon Triple Bonds 160
References 167
Formation of Carbon Carbon Single Bonds via Enolate Anions 175
6.1 1,3–Dicarbonyl Compounds 175
6.2 Direct Alkylation of Enolates 185
6.3 Cyclization Reactions Baldwin s Rules for Ring Closure 193
6.4 Stereochemistry of Cyclic Ketone Alkylation 195
6.5 Imine and Hydrazone Anions 196
6.6 Enamines 197
6.7 The Aldol Reaction 199
6.8 Condensation Reactions of Enols and Enolates 213
6.9 Robinson Annulation 217
References 220
Formation of Carbon Carbon Bonds via Organometallic Reagents 227
7.1 Organolithium Reagents 227
7.2 Organomagnesium Reagents 236
7.3 Organotitanium Reagents 239
7.4 Organocerium Reagents 240
7.5 Organocopper Reagents 241
7.6 Organochromium Reagents 251
7.7 Organozinc Reagents 252
7.8 Organoboron Reagents 256
7.9 Organosilicon Reagents 264
7.10 Organogold Chemistry 274
References 278
Palladium–Catalyzed Coupling Reactions 285
8.1 Palladium Oxidation State 285
8.2 Organic Synthesis with Palladium(0) Complexes 286
8.3 The Heck Reaction Palladium(0)–Catalyzed Olefin Insertion Reactions 288
8.4 Palladium–Catalyzed Cross–Coupling with Organometallic Reagents 292
8.5 Cross–Coupling Reactions Involving sp–Carbons 301
8.6 The Trost Tsuji Reaction 304
References 307
Formation of Carbon Carbon –Bonds 313
9.1 Formation of Carbon Carbon Double Bonds 313
9.2 Formation of Carbon Carbon Triple Bonds 343
References 350
Syntheses of Carbocyclic Systems 355
10.1 Intramolecular Free Radical Cyclizations 355
10.2 Cation Cyclizations 361
10.3 Pericyclic Reactions 364
10.4 Ring–Closing Olefin Metathesis 375
References 378
Index 383

Notă biografică

GEORGE S. ZWEIFEL, PhD, is Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Davis.
MICHAEL H. NANTZ, PhD, is Professor of Chemistry and Distinguished University Scholar at the University of Louisville.
PETER SOMFAI, PhD, is Professor of Chemistry at Lund University.