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Micro– and Nanophotonic Technologies (Applications of Nanotechnology)

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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 15 Feb 2017
Edited and authored by leading experts from top institutions in Europe, the US and Asia, this comprehensive overview of micro– and nanophotonics covers the physical and chemical fundamentals, while clearly focusing on the technologies and applications in industrial R&D.
As such, the book reports on the four main areas of telecommunications and display technologies; light conversion and energy generation; light–based fabrication of materials; and micro– and nanophotonic devices in metrology and control.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9783527340378
ISBN-10: 3527340378
Pagini: 571
Dimensiuni: 181 x 249 x 33 mm
Greutate: 1.39 kg
Editura: Wiley Vch
Seria Applications of Nanotechnology

Locul publicării: Weinheim, Germany

Public țintă

Materials Scientists, Applied Physicists, Optical Industry, Engineering Scientists, Engineering Scientists in Industry, Laser Specialists, Photochemists, Libraries

Cuprins

Foreword XXIII
Preface XXV
An Overview of Micro– and Nanophotonic Science and Technology XXVII
Part One From Research to Application 1
1 Nanophotonics: From Fundamental Research to Applications 3
François Flory, Ludovic Escoubas, Judikael Le Rouzo, and Gérard Berginc
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Application of Photonic Crystals to Solar Cells 5
1.3 Antireflecting Periodic Structures 8
1.4 Black Silicon 10
1.5 Metamaterials for Wide–Band Filtering 14
1.6 Rough Surfaces with Controlled Statistics 16
1.7 Enhancement of Absorption in Organic Solar Cells with Plasmonic Nano Particles 19
1.8 Quantum Dot Solar Cells 20
1.9 Conclusions 24
Acknowledgments 24
References 24
2 Photonic Crystal and Plasmonic Microcavities 29
Kazuaki Sakoda
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Photonic Crystal Microcavity 32
2.3 Purcell Effect 38
2.3.1 Purcell Factor 38
2.3.2 GaAs Quantum Dots in PC Microcavity 39
2.4 Plasmonic Microcavity 41
2.4.1 Enhanced MD Radiation 42
2.4.2 Enhanced ED Radiation 46
2.4.3 Multimode Cavity 47
References 50
3 Unconventional Thermal Emission from Photonic Crystals 51
Hideki T. Miyazaki
3.1 Introduction 51
3.2 3D Photonic Crystals 52
3.3 2D Photonic Crystals 57
3.4 1D Photonic Crystals 60
3.5 Summary 61
References 61
4 Extremely Small Bending Loss of Organic Polaritonic Fibers 65
Ken Takazawa, Hiroyuki Takeda, and Kazuaki Sakoda
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 Exciton Polariton Waveguiding in TC Nanofibers 66
4.2.1 Synthesis and Characterization of TC Nanofibers 66
4.2.2 Mechanism of Active Waveguiding in TC Nanofibers 67
4.3 Miniaturized Photonic Circuit Components Constructed from TC Nanofibers 69
4.3.1 Asymmetric Mach Zehnder Interferometers 69
4.3.2 Microring Resonators 71
4.3.3 Microring Resonator Channel Drop Filters 74
4.4 Theoretical Analysis 76
4.4.1 Dispersion Relation 76
4.4.2 Bending Loss 78
References 80
5 Plasmon Color Filters and Phase Controllers 81
Yoshimasa Sugimoto, Daisuke Inoue, and Takayuki Matsui
5.1 Introduction 81
5.2 Optical Filter Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance 82
5.2.1 Light Transmission through Hole and Slit Arrays 83
5.2.1.1 Hole Arrays 83
5.2.1.2 Nanoslit Arrays 85
5.2.2 Fabrication and Measurement 87
5.2.3 Transmission Characteristics 89
5.2.3.1 Hole Arrays 89
5.2.3.2 Nanoslit Arrays 91
5.3 Transmission Phase Control by Stacked Metal–Dielectric Hole Array 92
5.3.1 Verification of Transmission Phase Control by a Uniform SHA 93
5.3.2 Numerical Study of Transition SHA for Inclined Wavefront Formation 95
5.3.3 Experimental Confirmation of Uniform SHA 95
5.3.4 Experimental Confirmation of Transition SHA 97
5.4 Summary 99
References 100
6 Entangled Photon Pair Generation in Naturally Symmetric Quantum Dots Grown by Droplet Epitaxy 103
Takashi Kuroda
6.1 Introduction 103
6.2 Quantum Dot Photon–pair Source 105
6.3 Natural Growth of Symmetric Quantum Dots 108
6.4 Droplet Epitaxy of GaAs Quantum Dots on AlGaAs(1 1 1)A 109
6.5 Characterization of Entanglement 112
6.6 Violation of Bell s Inequality 115
6.7 Quantum–state Tomography and Other Entanglement Measures 118
References 121
7 Single–Photon Generation from Nitrogen Isoelectronic Traps in III V Semiconductors 125
Yoshiki Sakuma, Michio Ikezawa, and Liao Zhang
7.1 Introduction 125
7.2 What is Isoelectronic Trap? 126
7.3 GaP:N Case 127
7.3.1 Macro–PL from Bulk GaP:N 127
7.3.2 –PL of NN Pairs in –Doped GaP:N 127
7.3.3 Single–Photon Emission from –Doped GaP:N 130
7.4 GaAs:N Case 131
7.4.1 Overview of Isoelectronic Traps in GaAs 131
7.4.2 NX Centers in –Doped GaAs:N 132
7.4.2.1 Growth Conditions and Macro–PL 132
7.4.2.2 –PL of NX Centers and Single–Photon Emission 132
7.4.3 Energy–Defined N–Related Centers in –Doped GaAs:N 134
7.4.3.1 Growth Conditions and Macro–PL 134
7.4.3.2 –PL of NNA and Single–Photon Emission 135
7.5 Summary 138
References 138
8 Parity Time Symmetry in Free Space Optics 143
Bernard Kress, PhD and Mykola Kulishov, PhD
8.1 Parity Time Symmetry in Diffractive Optics 143
8.1.1 Spectral, Angular, and Polarization Selectivity 143
8.1.2 Time Multiplexing: Dynamic Gratings and Holograms 144
8.1.3 From Conventional Amplitude/Phase Modulations to Phase/Gain/Loss Modulations 145
8.1.4 Implementation of Parity Time Symmetry in Optics 145
8.1.4.1 Thick and Thin Gratings 147
8.2 Free Space Diffraction on Active Gratings with Balanced Phase and Gain/Loss Modulations 148
8.2.1 Raman Nath PT–Symmetric Diffraction 148
8.2.1.1 Raman Nath Diffraction Regime 150
8.2.1.2 Intermediate and Bragg Diffraction Regimes 151
8.2.1.3 Summary 155
8.3 PT–Symmetric Volume Holograms in Transmission Mode 156
8.3.1 Second–Order Coupled Mode Equations 157
8.3.2 Two–Mode Solution for B 160
8.3.3 Analytic Solution for Balanced PT–Symmetric Grating for Arbitrary Angle of Incidence 162
8.3.4 Filled Space PT–Symmetric Grating 166
8.3.5 Symmetric Slab Configuration 167
8.3.6 Asymmetric Slab Configurations 168
8.3.6.1 Light Incident from the Substrate Side: 3 =1 168
8.3.6.2 Light Incident from the Air: 1 =1 170
8.3.6.3 Reflective Setup 170
8.3.7 Discussion 171
8.4 Analysis of Unidirectional Nonparaxial Invisibility of Purely Reflective PT–Symmetric Volume Gratings 174
8.4.1 Introduction 174
8.4.2 Analytic Solution for First Three Bragg Orders for a Balanced PT–Symmetric Grating 174
8.4.3 Zeroth Diffractive Orders in Transmission and Reflection 177
8.4.4 Higher Diffractive Orders 178
8.4.4.1 First Diffraction Orders 178
8.4.4.2 Second Diffraction Orders 179
8.4.5 Filled Space PT–Symmetric Gratings 180
8.4.5.1 Filled Space PT–Symmetric Grating Implies 1 2 3 180
8.4.6 Reflective PT–Symmetric Gratings with Fresnel Reflections 185
8.4.6.1 Symmetric Geometry 1 3 1; 2 2:4 185
8.4.6.2 Asymmetric Slab Configuration 186
8.5 Summary and Conclusions 189
References 191
9 Parity Time Symmetric Cavities: Intrinsically Single–Mode Lasing 193
Mykola Kulishov and Bernard Kress
9.1 Introduction 193
9.2 Resonant Cavities Based on two PT–Symmetric Diffractive Gratings 194
9.2.1 PT–Symmetric Bragg Grating 194
9.2.2 Concatenation of Two Gratings 195
9.2.3 Temporal Characteristics 202
9.2.4 Summary 204
9.3 Distributed Bragg Reflector Structures Based on PT–Symmetric Coupling with Lowest Possible Lasing Threshold 204
9.3.1 Grating–Assisted Codirectional Coupler with PT Symmetry 205
9.3.2 Threshold Condition in DBR Lasers 208
9.3.3 DBR Lasers with PT–Symmetrical GACC Output 209
9.3.4 Transfer Matrix Description of the DBR Structure with PT–Symmetrical GACC Output 210
9.4 Unique Optical Characteristics of a Fabry Perot Resonator with Embedded PT–Symmetrical Grating 215
9.4.1 Transfer Matrix for Fabry Perot Cavity with a Single PT–SBG 216
9.4.2 Absorption and Amplification Modes along with Lasing Characteristics 220
9.4.2.1 Fully Constructive Cavity Interaction 220
9.4.2.2 Partially Constructive Cavity Interaction 223
9.4.2.3 Partially Destructive Cavity Interaction 228
9.4.2.4 Fully Destructive Cavity Interaction 230
9.5 Summary and Conclusions 230
References 231
10 Silicon Quantum Dot Composites for Nanophotonics 233
Hiroshi Sugimoto and Minoru Fujii
10.1 Introduction 233
10.2 Core Shell Type Nanocomposites 234
10.3 Polymer Encapsulation 239
10.4 Micelle Encapsulation 241
10.5 Summary 243
Acknowledgments 243
References 243
Part Two Breakthrough Applications 247
11 Ultrathin Polarizers and Waveplates Made of Metamaterials 249
Masanobu Iwanaga
11.1 Concept and Practice of Subwavelength Optical Devices 249
11.1.1 Conceptual Classification of Polarization–Controlling Optical Devices 249
11.1.2 Construction of Optical Devices Using Jones Matrices 250
11.1.3 UV NIL 252
11.2 Ultrathin Polarizers 254
11.3 Ultrathin Waveplates 258
11.3.1 Ultrathin Waveplates Made of Stratified Metal Dielectric MMs 259
11.3.2 Ultrathin Waveplates of Other Structures 262
11.4 Constructions of Functional Subwavelength Devices 264
11.5 Summary and Prospects 267
Acknowledgments 267
References 267
12 Nanoimprint Lithography for the Fabrication of Metallic Metasurfaces 269
Yoshimasa Sugimoto, Masanobu Iwanaga, and Hideki T. Miyazaki
12.1 Introduction 269
12.2 UV–NIL 270
12.3 Large–Area SP–RGB Color Filter Using UV–NIL 273
12.3.1 Introduction 273
12.3.2 Device Design 274
12.3.3 Device Fabrication and Transmission Characteristics 275
12.4 Emission–Enhanced Plasmonic Metasurfaces Fabricated by NIL 278
12.4.1 Introduction 278
12.4.2 SC–PlC Structure 279
12.4.3 Fabrication and Optical Characterization of SC–PlC 279
12.5 Metasurface Thermal Emitters for Infrared CO2 Detection by UV–NIL 282
12.5.1 Introduction 282
12.5.2 Metasurface Design 282
12.5.3 Device Fabrication and Optical Properties 283
12.6 Summary 285
References 287
13 Applications to Optical Communication 291
Philippe Gallion
13.1 Introduction 291
13.2 Optical Fiber and Propagation Impairments 294
13.2.1 Guiding Necessity 294
13.2.2 Multimode and Single–Mode Fibers 295
13.2.3 Rayleigh Diffusion as the Limiting Factor for Optical Fiber Attenuation 297
13.2.4 A Huge Available Bandwidth Resource 298
13.2.5 dispersions as the bit–rate limitations 299
13.2.5.1 Group Velocity Dispersion 299
13.2.5.2 Polarization Mode Dispersion 299
13.2.5.3 bit–rate limitations 301
13.2.5.4 Overcoming the Dispersion Limitations 302
13.2.6 Fiber Nonlinearity 302
13.2.7 New Fiber Materials and Structures 304
13.3 Basics of Functional Devices 305
13.3.1 Optical Sources 305
13.3.1.1 Light Emission in Semiconductor 305
13.3.1.2 Semiconductor Laser Single–Mode Operation 306
13.3.1.3 Interband Dynamics as Direct Modulation Limitation 308
13.3.1.4 Optical Frequency Chirping 308
13.3.1.5 Optical Frequency Tuning 309
13.3.1.6 Quantum Phase Diffusion and Linewidth 309
13.3.2 External Modulation 310
13.3.2.1 Electroabsorption Modulation 310
13.3.2.2 Electro–Optic Modulation 310
13.3.3 Optical Amplification 311
13.3.3.1 Needs of Optical Amplification 311
13.3.3.2 Today s Optical Amplifier Technologies 311
13.3.3.3 Heisenberg Indetermination and Quantum Noise 312
13.3.3.4 Spontaneous Emission Noise Description 313
13.3.3.5 Optical Amplifier Noise Figure 313
13.3.3.6 Noise in Cascaded Amplifications 313
13.3.4 Interfacing the Optical and the Electronics Domains 314
13.3.5 Module Packaging 314
13.4 Advanced Optical Communication Techniques 315
13.4.1 Managing the Color and Wavelength Division Multiplexing 315
13.4.2 Coherent Optical Communication 316
13.4.2.1 Coherent Optical Receiver 316
13.4.2.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulations 317
13.4.3 Digital Communication and Signal Processing Techniques 318
13.5 Today s Optical Communication Systems 319
13.5.1 The Conquest of Submarine and Terrestrial Communication Infrastructures 319
13.5.2 Optical Fiber at Our Door 320
13.5.2.1 The Last–Mile Problem 320
13.5.2.2 Optical Connection to the End Users 320
13.5.3 Optical Wireless and Free Space Communications 322
13.5.4 Quantum Cryptography 322
13.6 Conclusions: Today s Challenges and Perspectives 323
Acknowledgments 326
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 326
References 328
14 Advanced Concepts for Solar Energy 333
Mikaël Hosatte
14.1 Introduction 333
14.2 Photon Management 334
14.2.1 Antireflection Techniques 334
14.2.2 Light Trapping 337
14.3 Spectral Optimization 339
14.3.1 Upconversion/Downconversion 339
14.3.2 Tandem Cells 340
14.4 Advanced Concepts 343
14.4.1 Third–Generation Concepts 343
14.4.2 Multiple Energy Level Solar Cells 344
14.4.3 Multiple Exciton Generation 345
14.4.4 Hot Carrier Solar Cells 348
14.4.5 Comparison of the Approaches 349
14.5 Conclusions 349
References 350
15 The Micro– and Nanoinvestigation and Control of Physical Processes Using Optical Fiber Sensors and Numerical Simulations: a Mathematical Approach 355
Adrian Neculae and Dan Curticapean
15.1 Introduction 355
15.2 Temperature Measurement and Heat Transfer Evaluation in a Circular Cylinder by Considering a High Accurate Numerical Solution 360
15.2.1 Theoretical Background 361
15.2.2 Numerical Results for Conductive Transport 366
15.2.3 The SP1 Approximation Model 370
15.2.4 Numerical Results for the SP1 Model 370
15.3 Numerical Analysis of the Diffusive Mass Transport in Brain Tissues with Applications to Optical Sensors 372
15.3.1 Theoretical Background 373
15.3.2 Numerical Results 375
Acknowledgment 380
References 380
16 Laser Micronanofabrication 383
Sylvain Lecler, Joël J. Fontaine, and Frédéric Mermet
16.1 Introduction 383
16.2 Physical Issues 384
16.2.1 The Laser Mean Power 385
16.2.2 The Wavelength 385
16.2.3 Pulse Duration and Repetition Rate 385
16.2.4 Spatial Concentration and Beam Shaping 385
16.2.5 Material Response 386
16.3 Recent Technological Advances 387
16.3.1 Femtosecond Laser 387
16.3.2 Nondivergent Subwavelength Beams 388
16.3.3 Subwavelength Focusing of Light with Photonic Nanojet 389
16.3.4 Subwavelength Deposition by LIFT Technique 389
16.4 Laser Microprocesses 392
16.4.1 Material Deposition and Thin–Layer Control 392
16.4.2 Nanoparticle Fabrication 392
16.4.3 Microdrilling 393
16.4.4 Microcutting 393
16.4.5 Laser Microwelding 395
16.4.6 Surface Texturing 396
16.4.7 Additive Manufacturing 397
16.4.8 Waveguide Writing 399
16.5 Conclusions 399
References 400
17 Ultrarealistic Imaging Based on Nanoparticle Recording Materials 403
Hans I. Bjelkhagen
17.1 Introduction 403
17.1.1 Demands on a Holographic Emulsion 404
17.1.2 Silver Halide Emulsion Light Scattering 405
17.1.3 History of Ultrafine–grain Silver Halide Emulsions 406
17.2 Preperation of Silver Hailde Emulsions: Principle 407
17.2.1 General Description of the Photographic Emulsion Making Process 407
17.2.2 The Specification for the SilverCross Ultrafine–grain Emulsion 408
17.2.3 The Fabrication of a Basic Ultrafine–Grain Emulsion 409
17.2.3.1 Gelatin Concentration 410
17.2.3.2 Silver and Halide Concentrations 410
17.2.3.3 Silver to Halide Ratio 410
17.2.3.4 Jetting Methods and Jetting Time 410
17.2.3.5 Solution Temperatures 411
17.2.3.6 Concentration and Removal of Reaction By–products 411
17.2.3.7 Coating 412
17.3 Testing of the Emulsion 413
17.3.1 Sensitometric Tests 413
17.3.2 Color Holography Tests 414
17.4 Recording Museum Artifacts with Color Holography 417
17.4.1 Recording Holograms of Museum Artifacts 418
17.4.2 Holographic Recordings with Mobile Equipment 418
17.5 Conclusions 421
Acknowledgments 421
References 422
18 An Introduction to Tomographic Diffractive Microscopy: Toward High–Speed Quantitative Imaging Beyond the Abbe Limit 425
Jonathan Bailleul, Bertrand Simon, Matthieu Debailleul, and Olivier Haeberlé
18.1 Introduction 425
18.2 Conventional Transmission Microscopy 426
18.2.1 Transmission Microscopy and Köhler Illumination 426
18.2.2 Dark–Field Microscopy 428
18.2.3 Phase–Contrast Microscopy 429
18.3 Phase Amplitude Microscopy 431
18.3.1 Digital Holography 432
18.3.2 Wavefront Analyzer 433
18.4 Tomographic Diffractive Microscopy for True 3D Imaging 433
18.4.1 Limits of Phase Microscopy 433
18.4.2 Tomography by Illumination Variation 434
18.4.3 Tomography by Specimen Rotation 436
18.5 Biological Applications 438
18.6 Conclusions 439
References 439
19 Nanoplasmonic Guided Optic Hydrogen Sensor 443
Nicolas Javahiraly and Cédric Perrotton
19.1 Introduction 443
19.2 Fiber Optic Sensor 448
19.3 Pd Hydrogen Sensing Systems 451
19.3.1 Bulk Palladium Film 451
19.3.2 Thin Pd Film 453
19.3.3 Metal Properties upon Hydrogenation 454
19.4 Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensors 455
19.5 Fiber Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor 457
19.6 Sensitive Material for Hydrogen Sensing 460
19.6.1 Pd Alloys 460
19.6.2 Metal Hydrides and Rare–Earth Materials 461
19.6.3 Tungsten Oxide 462
19.7 Conclusions 464
Acknowledgment 466
References 466
20 Fiber Optic Liquid–Level Sensor System for Aerospace Applications 471
Alex A. Kazemi, Chengning Yang, and Shiping Chen
20.1 Introduction 471
20.2 The Operation Principle and System Design 472
20.2.1 Optical Fiber Long–Period Gratings 472
20.2.2 Optical Time Domain Reflectometer 474
20.2.3 Total Internal Reflection 474
20.2.4 LPG Sensor Liquid–Level System 475
20.2.5 TIR–Based Liquid–Level Detection System 476
20.3 Experimental Results 478
20.4 Liquid–Level Sensor Performance 485
20.5 Conclusions 486
References 487
21 Tunable Micropatterned Colloid Crystal Lasers 489
Seiichi Furumi, Hiroshi Fudouzi, and Tsutomu Sawada
21.1 Introduction 489
21.2 Synthesis of Colloidal Microparticles and Reflection Features of CCs 493
21.3 Laser Action from CCs with Light–Emitting Planar Defects 495
21.4 Micropatterned Laser Action from CCs by Photochromic Reaction 498
21.5 Tunable Laser Action from CC Gel Films Stabilized by Ionic Liquid 498
21.6 Conclusions and Outlook 503
Acknowledgments 504
References 504
22 Colloidal Photonic Crystals Made of Soft Materials: Gels and Elastomers 507
Hiroshi Fudouzi and Tsutomu Sawada
22.1 Introduction 507
22.2 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Gels Consist of Nonclose–packed Particles 508
22.2.1 Highly Oriented Colloidal Photonic Crystals by Shear–Flow Effect 508
22.2.2 Structural Characterization of Crystals Oriented by Shear Flow 510
22.3 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Elastomer Consists of Close–packed Particles 515
22.3.1 A Uniaxially Oriented Opal Film by Crystal Growth under Silicone Liquid 515
22.3.2 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Elastomer Film Coated on a Rubber Sheet 518
22.4 Applications 520
22.4.1 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Gels 520
22.4.2 Colloidal Photonic Crystal Elastomers 521
22.5 Summary and Outlook 523
References 524
23 Surveying the Landscape and the Prospects in Nanophotonics 527
David L. Andrews, Patrick L. Meyrueis, and Marcel Van de Voorde
23.1 Retrospective 527
23.2 Fundamental Developments 527
23.3 Futorology 528
23.4 Applications 529
23.5 Summing Up 529
Index 531

Notă biografică

Patrick Meyrueis is Emeritus Professor of Physics at the University of Strasbourg, France. He started his career as an engineer of the French Department of Industry and took up a position as Associate Professor at the University Louis Pasteur (now University of Strasbourg) in 1981 where he founded the Photonics Group, which he headed until 1987. He then moved on to become founder and head of the Photonics System Laboratory which was one of the most advanced labs in the field of planar digital optics (now Icube Institute). Patrick Meyrueis is the author of more than 200 publications, 100 patents and several books. He was the chairman of more than 20 international conferences in photonics.

Kazuaki Sakoda is Professor in the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences at Tsukuba University, Japan, and Managing Researcher of the Research Center for Functional Materials at the National Institute of Materials Science (NIMS). After his BE and ME degrees, obtained from Tokyo University, he worked as Senior Researcher at TORAY Industries, Inc. for eleven years. Kazuaki Sakoda received his PhD in Applied Physics from Tokyo University in 1992 and continued his academic career as Associate Professor in the Research Institute for Electronic Science at Hokkaido University before taking up his current positions.

Marcel Van de Voorde has 40 years′ experience in European Research Organisations including CERN–Geneva, European Commission, with 10 years at the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart, Germany. For many years, he was involved in research and research strategies, policy and management, especially in European research institutions. He holds a Professorship at the University of Technology in Delft, the Netherland, as well as multiple visiting professorships in Europe and worldwide. He holds a doctor honoris causa and various honorary Professorships.
He is senator of the European Academy for Sciences and Arts, in Salzburg and Fellow of the World Academy for Sciences. He is a Fellow of various scientific societies and has been decorated by the Belgian King. He has authored of multiple scientific and technical publications and co–edited multiple books in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.