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Mass Spectrometry and Stable Isotopes in Nutritional and Pediatric Research (Wiley Series on Mass Spectrometry)

Editat de Henk Schierbeek
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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 24 Mar 2017
A Guide for Scientists, Nutritionists, Paediatricians, and Students Involved in Metabolic Studies
Mass Spectrometry is widely used by organic chemists to determine the molecular structure as well as for quantitative analysis of a sample based on the atomic mass of each element in the sample. It is used to identify a wide variety of compound classes, including drugs and pesticides. High–precision mass spectrometric analyses are gaining popularity in many scientific disciplines, including metabolic kinetic studies in pediatrics. Innovations in mass spectrometry and tracer administration techniques have made mass spectrometers the instruments of choice for the analysis of isotopic compounds.

In particular, the coupling of LC with IRMS has created new possibilities for pediatric research, especially when low sample volume is crucial, such as in newborn babies. Mass Spectrometry and Stable Isotopes in Pediatric Research presents the relevance of mass spectrometry and stable isotope methodology in pediatric research. Applications for the use of stable isotopes with MS cover carbohydrate, fat, and protein as well as specific amino acid metabolism, energy expenditure, and the synthesis of specific peptides and proteins.
The main focus of these studies is on the interactions between nutrients and the endogenous metabolism within the body and how these factors affect the health of a growing infant. Considering that the early imprinting of metabolic processes hugely impacts metabolism (and thus functional outcome) later in life, research in this area is important and is advancing rapidly. Mass Spectrometry and Stable Isotopes in Pediatric Research features:
  • Applications in Nutrition, Obesity, Metabolic disorders, Gut disorders, Kidney disorders, and more
  • Mass Spectrometry Techniques
  • Stable Isotope Methodology
  • Future perspectives

The book acts as a guide for scientists, pediatricians and students involved in metabolic studies in life sciences and shows the availability of modern analytical techniques and how to apply these techniques in practice. Readers will find the tools and techniques useful in their research.
Henk Schierbeek, PhD is currently engaged as Associate Professor at the Academic Medical Centre (AMC) of the University of Amsterdam and is heading the mass spectrometry facility of the Mother and child division. Currently he is a board member of the Benelux Association of Stable Isotope Scientists (BASIS.)
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781118858776
ISBN-10: 1118858778
Pagini: 416
Dimensiuni: 162 x 238 x 28 mm
Greutate: 0.68 kg
Editura: Wiley
Seria Wiley Series on Mass Spectrometry

Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Public țintă

Scientists, analytical chemists, biochemists, clinical chemists and pediatricians as well as graduate students (life science) and lecturers

Textul de pe ultima copertă

A Guide for Scientists, Nutritionists, Paediatricians, and Students Involved in Metabolic Studies
Mass Spectrometry is widely used by organic chemists to determine the molecular structure as well as for quantitative analysis of a sample based on the atomic mass of each element in the sample. It is used to identify a wide variety of compound classes, including drugs and pesticides. High–precision mass spectrometric analyses are gaining popularity in many scientific disciplines, including metabolic kinetic studies in pediatrics. Innovations in mass spectrometry and tracer administration techniques have made mass spectrometers the instruments of choice for the analysis of isotopic compounds.

In particular, the coupling of LC with IRMS has created new possibilities for pediatric research, especially when low sample volume is crucial, such as in newborn babies. Mass Spectrometry and Stable Isotopes in Pediatric Research presents the relevance of mass spectrometry and stable isotope methodology in pediatric research. Applications for the use of stable isotopes with MS cover carbohydrate, fat, and protein as well as specific amino acid metabolism, energy expenditure, and the synthesis of specific peptides and proteins.
The main focus of these studies is on the interactions between nutrients and the endogenous metabolism within the body and how these factors affect the health of a growing infant. Considering that the early imprinting of metabolic processes hugely impacts metabolism (and thus functional outcome) later in life, research in this area is important and is advancing rapidly. Mass Spectrometry and Stable Isotopes in Pediatric Research features:
  • Applications in Nutrition, Obesity, Metabolic disorders, Gut disorders, Kidney disorders, and more
  • Mass Spectrometry Techniques
  • Stable Isotope Methodology
  • Future perspectives

The book acts as a guide for scientists, pediatricians and students involved in metabolic studies in life sciences and shows the availability of modern analytical techniques and how to apply these techniques in practice. Readers will find the tools and techniques useful in their research.
Henk Schierbeek, PhD is currently engaged as Associate Professor at the Academic Medical Centre (AMC) of the University of Amsterdam and is heading the mass spectrometry facility of the Mother and child division. Currently he is a board member of the Benelux Association of Stable Isotope Scientists (BASIS.)

Cuprins

List of Contributors xvii
Introduction xxi
List of Abbreviations xxiii
1 Mass Spectrometry Techniques for In Vivo Stable Isotope Approaches 1
Jean–Philippe Godin and Henk Schierbeek
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Nomenclature for Light–Stable Isotope Changes 3
1.3 Mass Spectrometry Techniques 6
1.4 Choice of Mass Spectrometric Techniques and Applications to Measure Isotopic Enrichments in Metabolic Studies 26
1.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 30
References 32
2 Stable Isotope Technology 45
Dewi van Harskamp, Johannes B. van Goudoever, and Henk Schierbeek
2.1 History 45
2.2 Definition 45
2.3 Safety 46
2.4 Stable Isotopes and Natural Abundances 47
2.5 Stable Isotope Selection 48
2.6 Single or Multiple Label Selection 49
2.7 Precursor Model 49
2.8 Simultaneous Infusion 49
2.9 Infusion Techniques 50
2.10 Steady State 52
2.11 Pool Selection 52
2.12 Pool Models 53
2.13 Flux: Synthesis and Breakdown 55
2.14 Nitrogen Balance 57
2.15 Doubly LabeledWater Method 57
2.16 Whole–body Protein Synthesis 58
2.17 Specific Protein Synthesis 58
2.18 Calculations 59
2.19 Considerations and Drawbacks of Isotopic Tracers 62
2.20 Conclusion 63
References 63
3 Stable Isotopes in Nutritional and Pediatric Research 67
Willemijn E. Corpeleijn and Johannes B. van Goudoever
3.1 Introduction 67
3.2 Ethical Aspects 69
3.3 Applications of Stable Isotopes in Nutritional and Pediatric Research 70
3.4 Conclusion 78
References 78
4 Early–Life Nutrition and Stable Isotope Techniques 81
Stefanie M.P. Kouwenhoven and Marita deWaard
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Breast Milk versus Infant Formula 81
4.3 Techniques to Monitor Milk Intake 82
4.4 Body Composition in Term and Preterm Infants 86
4.5 Amino Acid Requirement 86
4.6 Clinical Applications 87
4.7 Additional Applications 95
4.8 Discussion 98
4.9 Conclusion 99
4.10 Future Perspectives 99
References 100
5 Assessment of Amino Acid Requirement in Children Using Stable Isotopes 108
Femke Maingay–de Groof and Henk Schierbeek
5.1 Introduction 108
5.2 Nutrient Needs and Definitions 109
5.3 Methods to Determine Requirements 111
5.4 Isotopic Tracer Methods 112
5.5 Existing Methods to Determine Amino Acid Requirement for Neonates 114
5.6 Use of the IAAO Method in the Pediatric Population 115
5.7 Necessity for Performing the Study 117
5.8 Biochemistry 117
5.9 Available AnalyticalMethods 120
5.10 Clinical Application 120
5.11 Analysis and Calculations 125
5.12 Results 125
5.13 Statistical Analysis 128
5.14 Discussion 129
5.15 Conclusion 131
5.16 Future Perspectives 132
References 132
6 Metabolism of Glutamine, Citrulline, and Arginine; Stable Isotopes Analyzing the Intestinal Renal Axis 139
Nikki Buijs, Saskia J.H. Brinkmann, Gerdien C. Ligthart–Melis, and Henk Schierbeek
6.1 Introduction 139
6.2 Biochemistry 142
6.3 Isotopic Model 146
6.4 Study Design 148
6.5 Mass Spectrometry Methods 151
6.6 Clinical Applications 155
6.7 Calculations 158
6.8 Discussion and Future Perspectives 161
References 167
7 Applications in Fat Absorption andMetabolism 175
Dirk–Jan Reijngoud and Henkjan J. Verkade
7.1 Introduction 175
7.2 Biochemistry of Fat Absorption 176
7.3 Isotope Model 178
7.4 Study Design/Infusion Protocols 179
7.5 Analytical Equipment 181
7.6 Analytical Conditions 181
7.7 Accuracy and Precision 183
7.8 Calculations 184
7.9 Clinical Applications 187
7.10 Future Perspectives 191
References 193
8 Materno–Fetal Lipid Kinetics 197
Elvira Larqué, Hans Demmelmair, and Berthold Koletzko
8.1 Introduction 197
8.2 Biochemistry of Placental Lipid Transport 198
8.3 Investigation of Fatty Acid Metabolism Using Stable Isotopes 200
8.4 Mass Spectrometry Methods 202
8.5 Clinical Studies with Fatty Acids Labeled with Stable Isotopes in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies 203
8.6 Calculations 207
8.7 Future Perspectives 209
Acknowledgments 210
References 210
9 Stable Isotope Applications in Human In Vivo Placental and Fetal Research 213
Chris H.P. van den Akker
9.1 Introduction 213
9.2 Investigation of FetalMetabolism Using Stable Isotopes 214
9.3 Study Designs and Models 215
9.4 Infusion Protocols and Clinical Applications 216
9.5 Necessary Additional Clinical Parameters to be Analyzed 218
9.6 Necessary Analytical Mass–Spectrometry Equipment and Analytical Conditions 218
9.7 Calculations 219
9.8 Future Perspectives 222
References 222
10 Obesity 225
Margriet Veldhorst and Henk Schierbeek
10.1 Introduction 225
10.2 Singly and Doubly LabeledWater 226
10.3 Substrate Oxidation 237
10.4 Glucose Metabolism 238
10.5 Fat Metabolism 239
10.6 Protein Turnover 242
10.7 Calculations 246
10.8 Discussion and Future Perspectives 249
References 250
11 Inborn Errors of Metabolism 258
Hidde H. Huidekoper, Frits A.Wijburg, and Ronald J.A.Wanders
11.1 Introduction 258
11.2 Stable Isotope Techniques 260
11.3 Analytical Equipment and Methods 267
11.4 Study Protocol: Quantifying Endogenous Galactose Production 269
11.5 Calculations 271
11.6 Discussion 276
11.7 Future Perspectives 277
References 278
12 Renal Disease and Dialysis 284
Gregorio P.Milani, Sander F. Garrelfs, and Michiel J.S. Oosterveld
12.1 Introduction 284
12.2 Total BodyWater and Its Distribution 286
12.3 Protein Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease 291
12.4 Dialysis Metabolic Consequences and Nutrient Losses 293
12.5 Primary Hyperoxalurias 295
12.6 Clinical Applications 298
12.7 Calculations 303
12.8 Discussion 308
12.9 Future Perspectives 310
References 310
13 Application in Oxidative Stress and Glutathione Metabolism in Preterm Infants 320
Denise Rook and Henk Schierbeek
13.1 Introduction 320
13.2 Biochemistry/Model 321
13.3 Guidelines and Safety Procedures 323
13.4 Mass Spectrometry Methods 323
13.5 Materials and Methods 324
13.6 Clinical Application (A Practical Example of a Study Protocol) 327
13.7 Calculations 329
13.8 Discussion and Future Perspectives 330
References 331
14 Nutrient Digestion and Absorption During Intestinal Malfunction and Diseases 336
Margot Fijlstra
14.1 Introduction 336
14.2 Clinical Application 340
References 357
Index 365