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Heating, Cooling, Lighting – Sustainable Design ategies Towards Net Zero Architecture

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en Limba Engleză Hardback – 17 Dec 2021

The essential guide to environmental control systems in building design 

For over 25 years Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Strategies Towards Net Zero Architecture has provided architects and design professionals the knowledge and tools required to design a sustainable built environment at the schematic design stage. This Fifth Edition offers cutting-edge research in the field of sustainable architecture and design and has been completely restructured based on net zero design strategies. Reflecting the latest developments in codes, standards, and rating systems for energy efficiency, Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Strategies Towards Net Zero Architecture includes three new chapters: 

  • Retrofits: Best practices for efficient energy optimization in existing buildings 
  • Integrated Design: Strategies for synergizing passive and active design 
  • Design Tools: How to utilize the best tools to benchmark a building's sustainability and net zero potential 

Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Strategies Towards Net Zero Architecture is a go-to resource for practicing professionals and students in the fields of environmental systems technology or design, environmental design systems, construction technology, and sustainability technology.  

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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781119585749
ISBN-10: 1119585740
Pagini: 832
Dimensiuni: 220 x 285 x 47 mm
Greutate: 1.88 kg
Ediția: 5th Edition
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Cuprins

Foreword to The Fifth Edition xiii Edward Mazria Foreword to The First Edition xv James Marston Fitch Preface xvii Acknowledgements xix Part I Fundamentals 1 1 Background: Architecture In A Warming World 3 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 Indigenous and Vernacular Architecture 5 1.3 Formal Architecture 6 1.4 Architecture and Energy 8 1.5 The Architectural Approach to Low-Energy Design 11 1.6 Climate and Architecture 14 1.7 Dynamic Versus Static Buildings 15 1.8 Form, Color and Ornamentation 15 1.9 Biophilic Design 18 1.10 Resilient Design 18 1.11 Sustainability Codes and Voluntary Programs 20 1.12 The Moral Imperative 20 1.13 Conclusion 21 Executive Summary 21 Resources 22 2 Climate Change: The Key Sustainability Issue 23 2.1 Easter Island: Learning From the Past 24 2.2 Sustainable Design and Climate Change 24 2.3 Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, and Regenerate by Design 25 2.4 The Sustainability Movement 27 2.5 The Basic Causes of Environmental Problems 28 2.6 Growth 31 2.7 Exponential Growth 31 2.8 The Amoeba Analogy 32 2.9 Supply Versus Efficiency 33 2.10 Sustainable-Design Issues 33 2.11 Embodied Energy 34 2.12 Climate Change 35 2.13 The Ozone Hole 37 2.14 Efficiency Versus Renewable Energy 37 2.15 Energy Sources 37 2.16 Energy Use in Ancient Greece 38 2.17 Nonrenewable Fossil Energy Sources 39 2.18 Nuclear Energy 40 2.19 Renewable Energy Sources 41 2.20 Conclusion 48 Executive Summary 49 Resources 50 3 Basic Principles: The Physics Of Heat Flow For Heating And Cooling Buildings 51 3.1 Introduction 52 3.2 Heat 52 3.3 Sensible Heat 52 3.4 Latent Heat 53 3.5 Evaporative Cooling 53 3.6 Convection 54 3.7 Transport 54 3.8 Energy-Transfer Mediums 55 3.9 Radiation 55 3.10 Greenhouse Effect 57 3.11 Equilibrium Temperature of a Surface 58 3.12 Mean Radiant Temperature 59 3.13 Heat Flow 59 3.14 Heat Sink 60 3.15 Heat Capacity 60 3.16 Thermal Resistance 60 3.17 Heat-Flow Coefficient 61 3.18 Time Lag 61 3.19 Insulating Effect of Mass 62 3.20 Energy Conversion 63 3.21 Combined Heat and Power 63 3.22 Off-Site Versus On-Site Renewable Energy 64 3.23 The Game Changers: Heat Pumps and Batteries 64 3.24 Net-Zero Buildings 65 3.25 Conclusion 65 Executive Summary 66 4 Climate: Its Significant Impact On Buildings 67 4.1 Introduction 68 4.2 Climate 68 4.3 Microclimate 70 4.4 Climatic Anomalies 73 4.5 Climate Regions in a Time of Climate Change 74 4.6 Explanations of the Climatic Data Tables 75 4.7 Relative Heating and Cooling Loads 80 4.8 Climatic Data Tables 84 4.9 Design Strategies 119 Executive Summary 125 Resources 126 5 Psychometrics: Thermal Comfort 127 5.1 Biological Machine 128 5.2 Thermal Barriers 129 5.3 Metabolic Rate 131 5.4 Thermal Conditions of the Environment 131 5.5 The Psychrometric Chart 133 5.6 Dew Point and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 135 5.7 Heat Content of Air 136 5.8 Thermal Comfort 138 5.9 Shifting of the Comfort Zone 139 5.10 Adaptive Comfort 141 5.11 Clothing and Comfort 141 5.12 Strategies 142 5.13 Conclusion 142 Executive Summary 143 Resources 143 6 Solar Geometry: The Most Powerful Element Of Design 145 6.1 Introduction 146 6.2 The Sun 146 6.3 Elliptical Orbit 146 6.4 Tilt of the Earth's Axis 147 6.5 Consequences of the Altitude Angle 147 6.6 Winter 148 6.7 The Sun Revolves Around the Earth! 149 6.8 The Sky Dome 149 6.9 Determining Altitude and Azimuth Angles 150 6.10 Solar Time 152 6.11 Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams 152 6.12 Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams 154 6.13 Drawing Sunbeams 155 6.14 Sun-Path Models 159 6.15 Solar Heat Gain 160 6.16 Solar Site-Evaluation tools 165 6.17 Heliodons 165 6.18 Sundials for Model Testing 166 6.19 Conceptually Clear Heliodons 167 6.20 Solar Responsive Design Strategies 168 6.20 Conclusion 170 Executive Summary 170 Resources 171 Part II Passive Design Strategies 173 7 Passive Heating Systems: The Solar Potential Of Natural Heating 175 7.1 History 176 7.2 Solar in America 177 7.3 Solar Hemicycle 178 7.4 Latest Rediscovery of Passive Solar 179 7.5 Passive Solar 180 7.6 Direct-Gain Systems 181 7.7 Design Guidelines for Direct-Gain Systems 183 7.8 Example 186 7.9 Trombe Wall Systems 186 7.10 Design Guidelines for Trombe Wall Systems 190 7.11 Example 190 7.12 Sunspaces 190 7.13 Balcomb House 193 7.14 Sunspace Design Guidelines 194 7.15 Comparison of the Three Main Passive Heating Systems 195 7.16 General Considerations for Passive Solar Systems 196 7.17 Heat-Storage Materials 201 7.18 Other Passive Heating Systems 203 7.19 Maximizing Passive Solar 204 7.20 Conclusion 204 Executive Summary 205 Resources 205 8 Solar Rejection: Shading and Light Colors 207 8.1 Introduction to Solar Rejection 208 8.2 History of Shading and Light Colors 208 8.3 Shading Myths 213 8.4 Shading Basics 215 8.5 Fixed Exterior Shading Devices 217 8.6 Dynamic (Movable) Shading Devices 220 8.7 Shading Periods of the Year 229 8.8 Overhangs 232 8.9 Design of Horizontal Overhangs: Basic Graphical Method 233 8.10 Shading Design Strategies for South Windows 235 8.11 Shading Design Strategies for East and West Windows 236 8.12 Design of Fins on North Windows 240 8.13 Design Guidelines for Eggcrate Shading Devices 241 8.14 Special Shading Strategies 241 8.15 Shading Outdoor Spaces 245 8.16 Using Physical Models for Shading Design 247 8.17 Glazing as the Shading Element 253 8.18 Interior Shading Devices 259 8.19 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient 260 8.20 Roof and Wall Reflectivity 260 8.21 Conclusion 263 Executive Summary 267 Resources 267 9 Passive Cooling: Natural Cooling, Raising the Comfort Zone, And Heat Avoidance 269 9.1 Introduction to Cooling 270 9.2 Historical and Indigenous Use of Passive Cooling 270 9.3 Passive Cooling Systems 276 9.4 Comfort Ventilation Versus Night- Flush Cooling 277 9.5 Basic Principles of Airflow 277 9.6 Airflow Through Buildings 281 9.7 Example of Ventilation Design 291 9.8 Comfort Ventilation 293 9.9 Night-Flush Cooling 295 9.10 Double-Skin Facades and Operable Roofs 298 9.11 Radiant Cooling 299 9.12 Evaporative Cooling 304 9.13 Cool Towers 307 9.14 Earth Cooling 308 9.15 Dehumidification with a Desiccant 311 9.16 Solar Chimney 311 9.17 Conclusion 313 Executive Summary 313 Resources 313 10 Site Analysis: Orientation, Landscape and Context In Net-Zero Design 315 10.1 Introduction 316 10.2 Analysis 317 10.3 Site Selection 319 10.4 Solar Access 320 10.5 Shadow Patterns 322 10.6 Site Planning 326 10.7 Solar Zoning 328 10.8 Physical Models 332 10.9 Wind and Site Design 334 10.10 Plants and Vegetation 338 10.11 Vegetated Roofs 347 10.12 Lawns 350 10.13 Landscaping 350 10.14 Community Design 356 10.15 Cooling Our Communities 358 10.16 Conclusion 359 Executive Summary 360 Resources 360 11 Light: Color, Vision, and Perception 363 11.1 Introduction 364 11.2 Light 365 11.3 Reflectance/Transmittance 368 11.4 Color 369 11.5 Vision 372 11.6 Perception 374 11.7 Performance of a Visual Task 377 11.8 Characteristics of the Visual Task 377 11.9 Illumination Level 379 11.10 Brightness Ratios 380 11.11 Glare 382 11.12 Equivalent Spherical Illumination 385 11.13 Activity Needs 387 11.14 Biological Needs 390 11.15 Light and Health 393 11.16 The Poetry of Light 393 11.17 Rules for Lighting Design 394 11.18 Career Possibilities 395 11.19 Conclusion 395 Executive Summary 396 Resources 397 12 Daylighting: Architectural Control for Natural Beauty, Comfort, and Energy Reduction 399 12.1 History of Daylighting 400 12.2 Why Daylighting? 402 12.3 The Nature of Daylight 404 12.4 Conceptual Model 407 12.5 Illumination and the Daylight Factor 408 12.6 Light Without Heat? 411 12.7 Cool Daylight 411 12.8 Goals of Daylighting 413 12.9 Basic Daylighting Strategies 414 12.10 Basic Window Strategies 417 12.11 Advanced Window Strategies 420 12.12 Window Glazing Materials 425 12.13 Top Lighting 428 12.14 Skylight Strategies 429 12.15 Clerestories, Monitors, and Light Scoops 433 12.16 Special Daylighting Techniques 437 12.17 Translucent Walls and Roofs 439 12.18 Electric Lighting as a Supplement to Daylighting 443 12.19 Physical Modeling 445 12.20 Guidelines for Daylighting 450 12.21 Conclusion 451 Executive Summary 451 Resources 452 13 The Thermal Envelope: Keeping Warm and Staying Cool 453 13.1 Introduction 454 13.2 Heat Loss 455 13.3 Heat Gain 456 13.4 Solar Reflectivity (Albedo) 458 13.5 Compactness, Exposed Area, and Thermal Planning 459 13.6 Insulation Materials 461 13.7 The Thermal Envelope 468 13.8 Heat Bridges 473 13.9 Windows 474 13.10 Dynamic Insulation 480 13.11 Insulating Effect from Thermal Mass 483 13.12 Earth Sheltering 487 13.13 Infiltration and Ventilation 494 13.14 Water: The Enemy of Architecture 496 13.15 Radon 500 13.16 Appliances 500 13.17 Conclusion 502 Executive Summary 502 Resources 503 14 Retrofits: Energy Efficiency Upgrades for Existing Buildings 505 14.1 Introduction 506 14.2 Goals for the Energy Upgrade 506 14.3 Envelope Upgrades 506 14.4 Lighting 507 14.5 Mechanical Equipment 508 14.6 Hot Water 508 14.7 Appliances 508 14.8 Renewable Energy 508 14.9 Miscellaneous 508 14.10 Case Studies 508 Executive Summary 510 15 Tropical Architecture: Not your Temperate Architecture 511 15.1 Introduction 512 15.2 Traditional Tropical Architecture 512 15.3 The Tropical Climate 515 15.4 The Solar Geometry of the Tropics 517 15.5 Shading in Tropical Climates 521 15.6 Daylighting in the Tropics 524 15.7 Passive Cooling 525 15.8 Air-Conditioned Buildings in the Tropics 526 15.9 Conclusion 528 Executive Summary 528 Part III Active Design Strategies 529 16 Electric Lighting: To Complement Daylight and At Night 531 16.1 Introduction 532 16.2 History of Light Sources 532 16.3 Light Sources 533 16.4 Incandescent and Halogen Lamps 534 16.5 Discharge Lamps 535 16.6 Fluorescent Lamps 537 16.7 High-Intensity Discharge Lamps 539 16.8 Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 540 16.9 Comparison of the Major Lighting Sources 542 16.10 Luminaires 542 16.11 Lenses, Diffusers, and Baffles 542 16.12 Lighting Systems 545 16.13 Remote-Source Lighting Systems 548 16.14 Visualizing Light Distribution 548 16.15 Architectural Lighting 549 16.16 Outdoor Lighting 552 16.17 Emergency Lighting 553 16.18 Controls 554 16.19 Maintenance 556 16.20 Rules for Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting Design 556 16.21 Laws and Standards 557 16.22 Conclusion 557 Executive Summary 557 Resources 557 17 Photovoltaics And Solar Thermal 559 17.1 Introduction 560 17.2 The Almost Ideal Energy Source 560 17.3 History of PV 561 17.4 The PV Cell 561 17.5 Types of PV Systems 562 17.6 Balance of System Equipment 563 17.7 Site-Integrated Photovoltaics 564 17.8 Glazing and PV 569 17.9 Orientation and Tilt 569 17.10 Design Guidelines 571 17.11 The Promise of PV 571 17.12 Sizing A PV System 572 17.13 The Cost-Effectiveness of PV Versus Solar Thermal Applications 573 17.14 Solar Thermal Basics 574 17.15 Solar Thermal Swimming-Pool Heating 574 17.16 Solar Hot-Water Systems 575 17.17 Passive Solar Thermal Systems 577 17.18 Solar Hot-Air Collectors 579 17.19 Preheating of Ventilation Air 579 17.20 Designing a Solar Thermal System 582 17.21 The Future of Solar Thermal 583 17.22 Conclusion 585 Executive Summary 586 Resources 587 18 Mechanical Equipment for Heating and Cooling 589 18.1 Introduction 590 18.2 Heating 590 18.3 Thermal Zones 592 18.4 Heating Systems 593 18.5 Electric Heating 594 18.6 Hot-Water (Hydronic) Heating 595 18.7 Hot-Air Systems 597 18.8 Cooling 599 18.9 Refrigeration Cycles 602 18.10 Heat Pumps 604 18.11 Geo-Exchange 605 18.12 Cooling Systems 606 18.13 Air-Conditioning for Small Buildings 609 18.14 Air-Conditioning for Large Multistory Buildings 614 18.15 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Systems 626 18.16 Air Supply (Ducts and Diffusers) 627 18.17 Ventilation 631 18.18 Energy-Efficient Ventilation Systems 633 18.19 Air Filtration and Odor Removal 636 18.20 Special Systems 636 18.21 Integrated and Exposed Mechanical Equipment 638 18.22 Low-Energy Heating and Cooling 639 18.23 Conclusion 639 Executive Summary 640 Resources 641 Part IV Integrated Design 643 19 Synergies: When the Whole Is Greater Than the Sum of the Parts 645 19.1 Introduction 646 19.2 Strategies 646 19.3 Synergies 650 19.4 Case Studies 651 19.5 Conclusion 657 Executive Summary 657 20 Integrated Design Process 659 20.1 Introduction 660 20.2 Definition 660 20.3 Differences 660 20.4 Coordination 660 20.5 Documentation 662 20.6 Conclusion 668 Executive Summary 668 Part V Tools 669 21 Codes 671 21.1 Introduction 672 21.2 Sustainability Codes 672 21.3 History 673 21.4 Current Model Codes 673 21.5 Reference Standards 675 21.6 Government Initiatives 675 21.7 Non-Governmental Initiatives 676 21.8 Conclusion 678 Executive Summary 678 22 Checklist for Designing Net-Zero Buildings 679 22.1 Introduction 680 22.2 Site Selection 680 22.3 Form 680 22.4 Plan 680 22.5 Windows 680 22.6 Daylighting 681 22.7 Shading 681 22.8 Color 682 22.9 Thermal Envelope 682 22.10 Thermal Mass 682 22.11 Glazing 682 22.12 Air Barrier 683 22.13 Passive Systems 683 22.14 Electric Lighting 683 22.15 Mechanical Equipment 684 22.16 Behavioral Controls 684 22.17 Renewable Technology 684 23 Assessment 685 23.1 Introduction 686 23.2 Global Rating Systems 686 23.3 Process 688 23.4 Conclusion 688 Executive Summary 688 24 Digital 691 24.1 Introduction 692 24.2 Building Performance Analytics 692 24.3 Methodology 692 24.4 Challenges 693 24.5 Conclusion 695 Executive Summary 695 Appendix A Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams 699 Steps for Converting Sun-Path Charts for Use in the Southern Hemisphere 699 Appendix B Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams 711 Steps for Converting Sun-Path Charts for Use in the Southern Hemisphere 711 Appendix C Solar Altitude And Azimuth Angles 723 Appendix D Methods for Estimating the Height of Trees, Buildings, and the Like 729 D.1 Proportional-Shadow Method 729 D.2 Similar-Triangle Method 729 D.3 45° Right-Triangle Method 730 D.4 Trigonometric Method 730 D.5 Tools for Measuring Vertical Angles 730 Appendix E Sundials 733 Appendix F Sun-Path Models 743 F.1 Introduction 743 F.2 Directions for Constructing a Sun-Path Model 743 Appendix G The Water Table For Ventilation Studies 755 G.1 Introduction 755 G.2 Construction of a Water Table 755 Appendix H Site Evaluation Tools 757 H.1 Introduction 757 H.2 The Solar Pathfinder 757 H.3 The Suneye 757 H.4 The Sun Locator 758 H.5 Do-It-Yourself Solar Site Evaluator 758 Appendix I Heliodons 765 I.1 Introduction 765 I.2 The Sun Simulator Heliodon 765 I.3 The Sun Emulator Heliodon 765 I.4 The Tabletop Heliodon 766 I.5 The Bowling Ball Heliodon 769 Appendix J Tables Of R-Values 771 Appendix K Resources 775 K.1 Journals 775 K.2 Videos 775 K.3 Organizations 775 K.4 Web-Based Resources 776 Appendix L Conversion Factors between the Inch-Pound (I-P) System and the International System of Units (Si) 777 Appendix M Appendix M: Sizing A Pv Array 781 M.1 Finding the PV Array Size for a Stand-Alone Building by the Short Calculation Method 781 M.2 Example 782 M.3 Design Guidelines 782 Bibliography 785 Index 791

Notă biografică

NORBERT LECHNER, LEED AP (Chapel Hill, NC) Architect and Professor Emeritus of Architecture in the Building Science Department at Auburn University, is an expert in energy responsive architectural design with an emphasis on solar responsive design, including daylighting. He is a consultant for designing sustainable, low energy, and solar responsive buildings, and is the inventor of new types of heliodons that are invaluable for teaching and designing solar responsive buildings. PATRICIA ANDRASIK, NCARB, AIA, IIDA, LEED BD+C, LEED O+M (Washington, D.C.) Associate Dean for Undergraduate Studies and Assistant Professor in the School of Architecture and Planning at The Catholic University of America, is a licensed architect in Washington, D.C. and is internationally recognized for her research in informing design through performance metrics and using performance metrics to inform O&M.