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Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology

Editat de Robert Doering, Yoshio Nishi
Notă GoodReads:
en Limba Engleză Hardback – July 2007
Retaining the comprehensive and in-depth approach that cemented the bestselling first edition's place as a standard reference in the field, the Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition features new and updated material that keeps it at the vanguard of today's most dynamic and rapidly growing field. Iconic experts Robert Doering and Yoshio Nishi have again assembled a team of the world's leading specialists in every area of semiconductor manufacturing to provide the most reliable, authoritative, and industry-leading information available.

Stay Current with the Latest Technologies
In addition to updates to nearly every existing chapter, this edition features five entirely new contributions on…
  • Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) materials and devices
  • Supercritical CO2 in semiconductor cleaning
  • Low-κ dielectrics
  • Atomic-layer deposition
  • Damascene copper electroplating
  • Effects of terrestrial radiation on integrated circuits (ICs)

    Reflecting rapid progress in many areas, several chapters were heavily revised and updated, and in some cases, rewritten to reflect rapid advances in such areas as interconnect technologies, gate dielectrics, photomask fabrication, IC packaging, and 300 mm wafer fabrication.

    While no book can be up-to-the-minute with the advances in the semiconductor field, the Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology keeps the most important data, methods, tools, and techniques close at hand.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781574446753
ISBN-10: 1574446754
Pagini: 1720
Ilustrații: 1051 b/w images, 227 tables and 179 halftones
Dimensiuni: 185 x 253 x 68 mm
Greutate: 2.74 kg
Ediția: Revizuită
Editura: CRC Press

Public țintă

Electrical, chemical, and mechanical engineers involved in semiconductor manufacturing; researchers in semiconductor and integrated circuit technology; wafer fab engineers, technicians, and managers; and students in electrical engineering, circuits, and semiconductors.

Cuprins

INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; John R. Hauser
Introduction
Overview of MOS Device Characteristics
MOSFET Device Scaling
Manufacturing Issues and Challenges
MOSFET Gate Stack Issues
Advanced MOS Device Concepts
Conclusions
References
OVERVIEW OF INTERCONNECT-COPPER AND LOW-κ INTEGRATION; Girish A. Dixit and Robert H. Havemann
Introduction
Dual Damascene Copper Integration
Copper/Low κ Reliability
Conclusion
References
SILICON MATERIALS; Wen Lin and Howard Huff
Introduction
Silicon Crystal Growth Processes
Characteristics of Czochralski Silicon Growth
Trends in Large Diameter Silicon Growth
Wafer Preparation
Epitaxial Growth
Oxygen Behavior in Silicon Processing
Other and New Applications of Silicon Materials
Summary
References
SOI MATERIALS AND DEVICES; Sorin Cristoloveanu and G.K. Celler
Introduction
SOI Basics: A Tutorial
SOI Wafer Fabrication Methods-Some Details
Advanced Wafer Engineering
Physical Characterization of SOI Wafers
Electrical Characterization
Partially Depleted SOI MOSFETs
Fully Depleted SOI MOSFETs
Scaling Trends
Multiple-Gate SOI MOSFETs
MEMS and Photonic Applications of SOI
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
SURFACE PREPARATION; Glenn W. Gale, Brian K. Kirkpatrick, and Frederick W. Kern Jr.
RCA Clean
Electrochemistry
The Chemistry of Aqueous Solutions
SC-1
Complexing
Particle Removal
Particle Adhesion
Particle Removal-Chemical Undercutting
Particle Removal-Electrophoretic Effects and DLVO Theory
Particle Removal-Megasonics
Wet Chemical Etching
Oxide Etch
Hydrofluoric Acid and Metallic Contamination
Defects Related to Drying
Polysilicon Etch
Selective Nitride Etch
Oxide/Nitride Etch
Bulk Organic Removal/Photoresist Strip
Photolithography
Sulfuric/Oxidizer Chemistry
Reaction Mechanism
Sulfuric/Peroxide (PIRANHA)
DI/OZONE
Surface Preparation and Cleaning for Interconnect
Subtractive Aluminum Interconnect
Key Subtractive Aluminum Cleaning Challenges with Associated Defects
Copper/Low-κ Dual Damascene Interconnect
Key Cu/Low-κ Challenges with Associated Defects
Typical Defects
Control and Monitoring of Surface Treatment Processes
References
SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE IN SEMICONDUCTOR CLEANING; Mohammed J. Meziani, Pankaj Pathak, and Ya-Ping Sun
Introduction
Supercritical Fluids
Supercritical CO2 Cleaning Processes
Processing Equipment
Conclusions and Perspectives
References
ION IMPLANTATION; Michael Ameen, Ivan Berry, Walter Class, Hans-Joachim Gossmann, and Leonard Rubin
Introduction
Ion Implant Physics and Materials Science
Applications of Ion Implantation
Commercial Ion Implantation Equipment
Process Control in Ion Implantation
References
DOPANT DIFFUSION; Sanjay Banerjee
Introduction
Definition of Point Defects
Thermodynamics of Defects
Migration and Diffusion of Point Defects
Fick's Laws of Diffusion
Equilibrium Formulation for Dopant Diffusion
Non-Equilibrium Formulation for Dopant Diffusion
Diffusion in Strained Silicon
Conclusions and Future Research
Acknowledgments
References
OXIDATION AND GATE DIELECTRICS; C. Rinn Cleavelin, Luigi Colombo, Hiro Niimi, Sylvia Pas, and Eric M. Vogel
Introduction to Oxidation and Gate Dielectric Technology
Oxidation Theory
Oxidation Interactions
Numerical Modeling of Oxidation
Metrology of Dielectric Films
Gate Dielectrics
Summary
References
SILICIDES; Christian Lavoie, Francois M. d'Heurle, and Shi-Li Zhang
Scope of the Chapter
Introduction
Development Trends of Silicide
Nickel Silicide for Contacts and Interconnections
Metal Gate and Schottky Barrier Source-Drain
Summary
Acknowledgments
References
RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING; P.J. Timans
Introduction
RTP System Hardware and Control Technology
Semiconductor Processing Using RTP
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
LOW-κ DIELECTRICS; Ting Y. Tsui and Andrew J. McKerrow
Introduction
Channel Crack Failures
Elastic Constraint Effects
Pattern Layout Effects
Environmental Effects
Conclusion
References
CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; Li-Qun Xia and Mei Chang
Introduction: What Is CVD and Why CVD
Basic Aspects of CVD
CVD System Design
CVD Thin Films
References
ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION; Thomas E. Seidel
Introduction
ALD Origins
Chemical Processes
ALD System Technology
Applications
Summary of Current Status and Outlook
Acknowledgments
References
PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; Stephen M. Rossnagel
Introduction and Semiconductor Applications
Sputtering Background and Basics
PVD Systems
Applications and Variations for Interconnect Applications
Summary, Future Directions
References
DAMASCENE COPPER ELECTROPLATING; Jonathon Reid
Introduction
Fundamentals of Electroplating
Damascene Cu Electroplating Chemistry
Damascene Film Deposition
Modeling Capabilities
Process Integration
Process Control Approaches
Acknowledgments
References
CHEMICAL-MECHANICAL POLISHING; Gregory B. Shinn, Vincent Korthuis, Gautum Grover, Simon Fang, and Duane S. Boning
Introduction
Equipment and Consumables
Mechanisms and Models
Applications and Issues
Post-CMP Clean
References
OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY; Gene E. Fuller
Introduction
Patterning Basics
Optics for Manufacturing
Exposure Tool System Considerations
Resolution Enhancement Techniques
Manufacturing Considerations
Recent Advances in Optical Lithography
Patterning Roadmaps
Summary
References
PHOTORESIST MATERIALS AND PROCESSING; César M. Garza, Will Conley, and Jeff Byers
Formation of the Relief Image
Formation of a Relief Image in Novolac-Based Photoresists
Formation of the Relief Image in Chemically Amplified Resists
ArF Materials, Immersion Lithography, and Extension of ArF
References
PHOTOMASK FABRICATION; Syed A. Rizvi and Sylvia Pas
Introduction
Photomask: Structure and Fabrication
Writing Patterns on Masks
Materials and Processing
Photomask Qualification
Manufacturability and COO
References
PLASMA ETCH; Peter L.G. Ventzek, Shahid Rauf, and Terry Sparks
Introduction
Technical Basics of Plasmas Relevant to Plasma Etching
65-90 nm CMOS Etch Process Modules
The Next Generation-45-32 nm Technology Nodes
Nanotechnology-22 nm and Beyond
Modeling of Plasma Etching Processes
References
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY; Vallabh H. Dhudshia
Introduction
Reliability Metrics Calculations
Applications of Reliability Metrics
Confidence Limits Calculations
Precise Use of the Reliability Metrics
Maintainability Metrics
High-Level Equipment Performance Metrics
An Example of Reliability and High Level Performance Metrics Calculations
Four Steps to Better Equipment Reliability
Reliability Testing
Use of Equipment Reliability Discipline in Business Practices
SEMI E10
References
OVERVIEW OF PROCESS CONTROL; Stephanie Watts Butler
Introduction to Control of Systematic Yield Loss
The Control-Type Categories
History of Process Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Characterization of Control Needs in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Basic Concepts of all Control Techniques
Specific Abnormality Detection and Control Methods
Specific Compensation Control Methods
Monitoring the Supervisory Run-to-Run Controller and the Controller System (APC)
Continuous Process Improvement
Summary
Acronyms and Glossary
References
Further Reading
IN-LINE METROLOGY; Alain C. Diebold
Introduction
Metrology for Lithography Processes: Critical Dimension Measurement and Overlay Control
Metrology for Front End Processes
Interconnect Process Control
In-FAB FIB
Acknowledgments
References
IN-SITU METROLOGY; Gabriel G. Barna and Brad VanEck
Introduction
Process State Sensors
Wafer-State Sensors
Measurement Techniques for Potential Sensors
Software for In-Situ Metrology
Use of In-Situ Metrology in SC Manufacturing
References
YIELD MODELING; Ron Ross and Nick Atchison
Introduction
Cluster Analysis
Yield Models
Yield Limits
Summary
References
YIELD MANAGEMENT; Louis Breaux and Sean Collins
Introduction
Sources and Types of Random Defects
Yield Management Methodology
Summary
References
ELECTRICAL, PHYSICAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION; Dieter K. Schroder, Bruno W. Schueler, and Greg S. Strossman
Introduction
Electrical Characterization
Physical and Chemical Characterization
References
FAILURE ANALYSIS; Lawrence C. Wagner
Introduction
Failure Site Isolation
Physical Analysis Tools
Chemical Characterization
Future of Failure Analysis
References
RELIABILITY PHYSICS; J.W. Mcpherson and E.T. Ogawa
Introduction
Accelerated Testing
Time-to-Failure Modeling
Time-to-Failure Statistics
Failure Rate
Acceleration Factor
Time-to-Failure Models for Selected ULSI Failure Mechanisms
Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown
Summary and a Look into the Future
References
EFFECTS OF TERRESTRIAL RADIATION ON INTEGRATED CIRCUITS; Robert Baumann
Background-Motivation and Terminology
The Terrestrial Radiation Environment
Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices
Technology Scaling Trends
Commercial Mitigation Techniques
Summary
References
INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT PACKAGING; Michael Lamson, Andreas Cangellaris, and Erdogan Madenci
Introduction
Electronic Packaging Challenges
Electrical Modeling and Behavior of Packages
Hygro-Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Packages
References
300 MM WAFER FAB LOGISTICS AND AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS; Leonard Foster and Devadas Pillai
Introduction
Wafer and Reticle Metrics, Carriers, and Tracking Systems
Interbay Transport and Storage
Intrabay Transport and Storage
Material Control System
AMHS Reliability and Maintainability Requirements
Anomaly Handling
Use of Computer Simulation for Designing and Operating AMHS
AMHS Implementation and Related Considerations
Extendibility and Scalability of AMH Systems
Appendix
References
Further Reading
FACTORY MODELING; Samuel C. Wood
Objectives: How is Factory Modeling Used?
Static Modeling
Dynamic Modeling
Acknowledgments
References
ECONOMICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING; G. Dan Hutcheson
Introduction
Market and Manufacturing Dynamics
Moore's Law
Economic Effects and How Manufacturing Fits In
Economic Models
The Learning Curve
The Technology Treadmill
Technological Driving Forces
Factory and Equipment Economics
APPENDIX A: PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
APPENDIX B: UNITS CONVERSION
APPENDIX C: STANDARDS COMMONLY USED IN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING
APPENDIX D: ACRONYMS
INDEX