Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials: Structure and Chemistry

Editat de Vijay Kumar Thakur, Manju Kumari Thakur, Michael R. Kessler
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The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication.

Volume 1 is solely focused on the Structure and Chemistry of renewable materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: carbon fibers from sustainable resources; polylactic acid composites and composite foams based on natural fibres; composites materials from other than cellulosic resources; microcrystalline cellulose and related polymer composites; tannin-based foam; renewable feedstock vanillin derived polymer and composites; silk biocomposites; bio-derived adhesives and matrix polymers; biomass based formaldehyde-free bio-resin; isolation and characterization of water soluble polysaccharide; bio-based fillers; keratin based materials in biotechnology; structure of proteins adsorbed onto bioactive glasses for sustainable composite; effect of filler properties on the antioxidant response of starch composites; composite of chitosan and its derivate; magnetic biochar from discarded agricultural biomass; biodegradable polymers for protein and peptide conjugation; polyurethanes and polyurethane composites from bio-based / recycled components.

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ISBN-13: 9781119223627
ISBN-10: 1119223628
Pagini: 570
Dimensiuni: 186 x 259 x 32 mm
Greutate: 1.15 kg
Ediția: Volume 1
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Public țintă

This valuable reference work will be read and consulted by rresearchers, engineers and students both in academia and industry who are working in the field of materials science especially polymer composites.  Composites from renewable material have significant industrial applications especially in the automotive, marine, aerospace, construction, wind energy and consumer goods industries.

Textul de pe ultima copertă

This unique multidisciplinary 8–volume set focuses on the emerging issues concerning synthesis, characterization, design, manufacturing and various other aspects of composite materials from renewable materials and provides a shared platform for both researcher and industry.
The Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The Handbook comprises 169 chapters from world renowned experts covering a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials.
Volume 8 is solely focused on the ′Nanocomposites: Advanced Applications′. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: Virgin and recycled polymers applied to advanced nanocomposites; biodegradable polymer carbon nanotube composites for water and wastewater treatment; eco–friendly nanocomposites of chitosan with natural extracts, antimicrobial agents, and nanometals; controllable generation of renewable nanofibrils from green materials and their application in nanocomposites; nanocellulose and nanocellulose composites; poly(lactic acid) biopolymer composites and nanocom??posites for biomedical and biopackaging applications; impact of nanotechnology in water treatment: carbon nanotube and graphene; nanomaterials in energy generation; sustain??able green nanocomposites from bacterial bioplastics for food–packaging applications; PLA nanocomposites: a promising material for future from renewable resources; biocom??posites from renewable resources: preparation and applications of chitosan clay nano??composites; nanomaterials: an advanced and versatile nanoadditive for kraft and paper industries; composites and nanocomposites based on polylactic acid obtaining; cellulose–containing scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning: applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery; biopolymer–based nanocomposites for environmental applications; cal??cium phosphate nanocomposites for biomedical and dental applications: recent devel??opments; chitosan metal nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization, and applications; multi–carboxyl functionalized nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite for the effective removal and recovery of metal ions; biomimetic gelatin nanocomposite as a scaffold for bone tissue repair; natural starches–blended ionotropically gelled microparticles/beads for sustained drug release and ferrogels: smart materials for biomedical and remediation applications.
This valuable reference work will be read and consulted by researchers, engineers and students both in academia and industry who are working in the field of materials science especially polymer composites/technology. Composites from renewable materials have significant industrial applications especially in the automotive, marine, aerospace, construction, wind energy and consumer goods industries.


Preface xxi
1 Structural and Biodegradation Characterization of Supramolecular PCL/HAp Nanocomposites for Application in Tissue Engineering 1
Parvin Shokrollahi, Fateme Shokrolahi and Parinaz Hassanzadeh
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Biomedical Applications of HAp 2
1.3 Effect of HAp Particles on Biodegradation of PCL/HAp Composites 5
1.4 Polycaprolactone 6
1.5 Supramolecular Polymers and Supramolecular PCL 7
1.6 Supramolecular Composites: PCL (UPy)2 /HApUPy Composites 8
1.7 PCL(UPy)2 /HApUPy Nanocomposites 17
References 20
2 Different Characterization of Solid Biofillers–based Agricultural Waste Material 25
Ahmad Mousa and Gert Heinrich
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Examples on Agricultural Waste Materials 26
2.3 The Main Polymorphs of Cellulose 30
2.4 Modification Methods of Agro–biomass 31
2.5 Properties of Thermoplastics Reinforced with Untreated Wood Fillers 34
2.6 Production of Nanocellulose 34
2.7 Processing of Wood Thermoplastic Composites 37
2.8 Conclusion 38
References 38
3 Poly (ethylene–terephthalate) Reinforced with Hemp Fibers: Elaboration, Characterization, and Potential Applications 43
A.S. Fotso Talla, F. Erchiqui and J.S.Y. D Pagé
3.1 General Introduction to Biocomposite Materials 43
3.2 PET Hemp Fiber Composites 45
3.3 Methods of Elaboration and Characterization of PET Hemp Fiber Composites 48
3.4 Properties of PET Hemp Fiber Composites 50
3.5 Applications of PET Hemp Fiber Composites 57
3.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects 64
References 64
4 Poly(Lactic Acid) Thermoplastic Composites from Renewable Materials 69
Khosrow Khodabakhshi
4.1 Introduction 69
4.2 Poly(Lactic Acid) Production, Properties, and Processing 71
4.3 Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanocomposites 74
4.4 Poly(Lactic Acid) Natural Fibers–Reinforced Composites 79
4.5 Conclusions 93
References 93
5 Chitosan–Based Composite Materials: Fabrication and Characterization 103
Nabil A. Ibrahim and Basma M. Eid
5.1 Introduction 103
5.2 Cs–Based Composite Materials 105
5.3 Cs–Based Nanocomposites 105
5.4 Characterization of Cs–based Composites 130
5.5 Environmental Concerns 130
5.6 Future Prospects 130
References 133
6 The Use of Flax Fiber–reinforced Polymer (FFRP) Composites in the Externally Reinforced Structures for Seismic Retrofitting Monitored by Transient Thermography and Optical Techniques 137
C. Ibarra–Castanedo, S. Sfarra, D. Paoletti, A. Bendada and X. Maldague
6.1 Introduction 137
6.2 Experimental Setup 139
6.3 Conclusions 151
Acknowledgments 152
References 152
7 Recycling and Reuse of Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Wastes in Concrete Composite Materials 155
M.C.S. Ribeiro, A. Fiúza and A.J.M. Ferreira
7.1 Introduction 155
7.2 Recycling Processes for Thermoset FRP Wastes 158
7.3 End–Use Applications for Mechanically Recycled FRP Wastes 164
7.4 Market Outlook and Future Perspectives 166
Acknowledgment 167
References 167
8 Analysis of Damage in Hybrid Composites Subjected to Ballistic Impacts: An Integrated Non–destructive Approach 175
S. Sfarra, F. López, F. Sarasini, J. Tirillò, L. Ferrante, S. Perilli, C. Ibarra–Castanedo, D. Paoletti, L. Lampani, E. Barbero, S. Sánchez–Sáez and X. Maldague
8.1 Introduction 176
8.2 Lay–up Sequences and Manufacturing of Composite Materials 178
8.3 Test Procedure 178
8.4 Numerical Simulation 180
8.5 Non–destructive Testing Methods and Related Techniques 191
8.6 Results and Discussion 194
8.7 Conclusions 206
References 206
9 Biofiber–Reinforced Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil (AESO)  Biocomposites 211
Nazire Deniz Yýlmaz, G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan and Kenan Yýlmaz
9.1 Introduction 211
9.2 Soybean Oil 213
9.3 Functionalization of Soy Oil Triglyceride 216
9.4 Manufacturing of AESO–Based Composites 227
9.5 Targeted Applications 247
9.6 Conclusion 247
Acknowledgments 248
References 248
10 Biopolyamides and High–Performance Natural Fiber–Reinforced Biocomposites 253
Shaghayegh Armioun, Muhammad Pervaiz and Mohini Sain
10.1 Introduction 253
10.2 Polyamide Chemistry 256
10.3 Overview of Current Applications of Polyamides 261
10.4 Biopolyamide Reinforced with Natural Fibers 262
10.5 Conclusion 268
References 268
11 Impact of Recycling on the Mechanical and Thermo–Mechanical Properties of Wood Fiber Based HDPE and PLA Composites 271
Dilpreet S. Bajwa and Sujal Bhattacharjee
11.1 Introduction 271
11.2 Experiments 275
11.3 Results and Discussion 279
11.4 Conclusion 289
References 289
12 Lignocellulosic Fibers Composites: An Overview 293
Grzegorz Kowaluk
12.1 Wood 293
12.2 Conventional Wood–Based Composites 296
12.3 Lignocellulosic Composites with Reduced Weight 299
12.4 Regenerated Cellulose Fibers 301
12.5 Composites with Natural Fibres 303
12.6 Sisal 303
12.7 Banana Fibers 304
12.8 Lignin and Cellulose 305
12.9 Nanocellulose 306
References 306
13 Biodiesel–Derived Raw Glycerol to Value–Added Products: Catalytic Conversion Approach 309
Samira Bagheri, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Wageeh Abdulhadi Yehya Dabdawb and Negar Mansouri
13.1 Introduction 309
13.2 Glycerol 313
13.3 Catalytic Conversion of Glycerol to Value–added Products 316
13.4 Conclusion 345
References 346
14 Thermo–Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable Structural Composites 367
Marek Prajer and Martin P. Ansell
14.1 Introduction 367
14.2 Structure and Mechanical Properties of Botanical Fibers 368
14.3 Sustainable Polymer Matrix 372
14.4 Interface in Natural Fiber–Sustainable Polymer Microcomposites 377
14.5 Natural Fibers as a Reinforcement in Unidirectional and Laminar Composites 381
14.6 Sustainable Structural Composites 384
14.7 Discussion and Conclusions 401
Acknowledgment 402
References 402
15 Novel pH Sensitive Composite Hydrogel Based on Functionalized Starch/clay for the Controlled Release of Amoxicillin 409
T.S. Anirudhan, J. Parvathy and Anoop S. Nair
15.1 Introduction 409
15.2 Experimental 412
15.3 Results and Discussion 416
15.4 Conclusions 421
Acknowledgments 422
References 422
16 Preparation and Characterization of Biobased Thermoset Polymers from Renewable Resources and Their Use in Composites 425
Sunil Kumar Ramamoorthy, Dan Åkesson, Mikael Skrifvars and Behnaz Baghaei
16.1 Introduction 425
16.2 Characterization 427
References 452
17 Influence of Natural Fillers Size and Shape into Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Biocomposites 459
Marcos Mariano, Clarice Fedosse Zornio, Farayde Matta Fakhouri and Sílvia Maria Martelli
17.1 Introduction 459
17.2 Mechanical Properties of Biobased Composites 464
References 480
18 Composite of Biodegradable Polymer Blends of PCL/PLLA and Coconut Fiber: The Effects of Ionizing Radiation 489
Yasko Kodama
18.1 Introduction 489
18.2 Material and Method 494
18.3 Results and Discussion 502
18.4 Conclusion 519
Acknowledgments 520
References 521
19 Packaging Composite Materials from Renewable Resources 525
Behjat Tajeddin
19.1 Introduction 525
19.2 Sustainable Packaging 527
19.3 Packaging Materials/Composites 531
19.4 Biomass Packaging Materials/Biobased Polymers 532
19.5 Vegetable Oils/Essential Oils 538
19.6 Aliphatic Polyesters 538
19.7 Synthetic/Natural Polymers Reinforcement with Any Other Renewable Resources/Vegetables Fibers Blends 544
19.8 Edible Packaging Materials (Composites) 545
19.9 Processing Methods or Tools for Biopackaging Composites Productions 546
19.10 Nanopackaging (Bionanocomposites) 549
19.11 Preparation Methods for Packaging Nanocomposites 550
19.12 Edible Nanocomposite–based Material 552
19.13 Summary/Conclusion 552
Abbreviations 553
References 554
20 Physicochemical Properties of Ash–Based Geopolymer Concrete 563
M. Shanmuga Sundaram and S. Karthiyaini
20.1 Precursor of Geopolymerization 563
20.2 Back Ground of Precursor 564
20.3 Present Scenario of Geopolymer 564
20.4 Geopolymer Concrete 565
20.5 Constituents of Geopolymers 566
20.6 Evolution of Geopolymer 566
20.7 Works on Geopolymer Concrete 567
20.8 Economic Benefits of Geopolymer Concrete 574
20.9 Authors Study 574
20.10 Conclusion 577
References 578
21 A Biopolymer Derived from Castor Oil Polyurethane: Experimental and Numerical Analyses 581
R.R.C. da Costa, A.C. Vieira, R.M. Guedes and V. Tita
21.1 Introduction 581
21.2 Experimental Analyses 586
21.3 Constitutive Models 590
21.4 Results 591
21.5 Conclusions 602
Acknowledgment 604
References 604
22 Natural Polymer–Based Biomaterials and Its Properties 607
Md. Saiful Islam, Irmawati Binti Ramli, S.N. Kamilah, Azman Hassan and Abu Saleh Ahmed
22.1 Introduction 608
22.2 Modifications of PLA 612
22.3 PLA Applications 612
22.4 Characterization by FT–IR 614
22.5 Characterization by Optical Microscopy 615
22.6 Characterization by Electron Microscopy 616
22.7 Characterization by Mechanical Testing 618
22.8 Characterization of GPC 624
22.9 Characterization of Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis 625
References 626
23 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Membranes from Renewable Resources 631
Anika Zafiah Mohd Rus
23.1 Introduction 631
23.2 Membranes Classifications 633
23.3 Overview of Fabrication Method of Polymer Membranes from Renewable Resources 637
23.4 Chemical Reaction of Renewable Polymer (BP) 640
23.5 Morphological Changes of Polymer Membrane by Scanning Electron Microscope 645
23.6 Water Permeability 648
23.7 Conclusions 649
References 650
Index 653

Notă biografică

Vijay Kumar Thakur is a Lecturer in the School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing Engineering, Cranfield University, UK. Previously he had been a Staff Scientist in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA.  He spent his Postdoctoral study in Materials Science & Engineering at Iowa State University, USA, and his PhD in Polymer Chemistry (2009) at the National Institute of Technology, India. He has published more than 90 SCI journal research articles in the field of polymers/materials science and holds one US patent. He has also published about 25 books and thirty three book chapters on the advanced state–of–the–art of polymers/materials science with numerous publishers, including Wiley–Scrivener.
Manju Kumar Thakur has been working as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the Division of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College Sarkaghat Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India since 2010. She received her PhD in Polymer Chemistry from the Chemistry Department at Himachal Pradesh University. She has rich experience in the field of organic chemistry, bio– polymers, composites/ nanocomposites, hydrogels, applications of hydrogels in the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, drug delivery etc. She has published more than 30 research papers in peer–reviewed journals, 25 book chapters and co–authored five books all in the field of polymeric materials.
Michael R. Kessler is a Professor of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA as well as the Director of the school. He is an expert in the mechanics, processing, and characterization of polymer matrix composites and nanocomposites. His honours include the Army Research Office Young Investigator Award, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Award, the NSF CAREER Award, and the Elsevier Young Composites Researcher Award from the American Society for Composites.  He has >150 journal papers and 5800 citations, holds 6 patents, published 5 books on the synthesis and characterization of polymer materials, and presented >200 talks at national and international meetings.