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Food Safety: Innovative Analytical Tools for Safety Assessment (Insight to Modern Food Science)

Editat de Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri, Giuseppe Cirillo
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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 03 Jan 2017

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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781119160557
ISBN-10: 1119160553
Pagini: 480
Dimensiuni: 154 x 236 x 30 mm
Greutate: 0.75 kg
Editura: Wiley
Seria Insight to Modern Food Science

Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Public țintă

–        Food Science research groups.
–        Analytical Chemistry research groups.
–        Biochemistry research groups.
–        Bioengineering research groups.
–        Human Nutrition research groups
–        Research and development division of food industries

Cuprins

Preface xiii
1 Food Analysis: A Brief Overview 1
Giuseppe Cirillo, Donatella Restuccia, Manuela Curcio, Francesca Iemma and Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Chromatographic Techniques in Food Analysis 2
1.3 Spectroscopic Methods 5
1.4 Biologically Based Methodologies in Food Analysis 7
References 8
2 Recent Analytical Methods for the Analysis of Sweeteners in Food: A Regulatory Perspective 13
Romina Shah and Lowri S. De Jager
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Sample Preparation 17
2.2.1 Internal Standards 20
2.3 Analytical Methods 21
2.3.1 Instrumental Analyses 21
2.3.1.1 HPLC–UV–VIS/DAD/ELSD Detection 21
2.3.1.2 HPLC–MS/Tandem MS Detection 24
2.3.1.3 Capillary Electrophoresis 28
2.4 Future Trends 28
References 29
3 Current Analytical Techniques for Food Lipids 33
Cynthia T. Srigley and Magdi M. Mossoba
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Official Methods for the Analysis of Fat in Foods 36
3.2.1 Importance of Official Methods of Analysis 36
3.2.2 Official Methods for the Gravimetric Determination of Total Fat 36
3.2.2.1 Solvent Extraction Procedures 37
3.2.2.2 Hydrolytic Procedures 40
3.2.3 Official Methods for the Determination of Total Fat by GC 42
3.2.3.1 Sample Preparation Procedures 42
3.2.3.2 Analysis of FAME by GC–FID 47
3.2.4 FTIR Spectroscopic Methods 51
3.2.5 Method Validation for Novel Sample Matrices 54
3.3 Conclusions 56
References 57
4 Detection of Allergenic Proteins in Food: Analytical Methods 65
Girdhari M. Sharma, Sefat E Khuda, Christine H. Parker, Anne C. Eischeid and Marion Pereira
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 Immunochemical Methods 69
4.2.1 Lateral Flow Device (LFD)/Dipstick 69
4.2.2 ELISA 70
4.2.2.1 Milk 71
4.2.2.2 Egg 72
4.2.2.3 Fish 72
4.2.2.4 Crustacean Shellfish 73
4.2.2.5 Peanut 73
4.2.2.6 Tree Nuts 74
4.2.2.7 Wheat (Gluten) 75
4.2.2.8 Soy 76
4.3 Mass Spectrometry (MS) Methods 76
4.3.1 Milk 81
4.3.2 Egg 82
4.3.3 Fish and Crustacean Shellfish 82
4.3.4 Peanut 83
4.3.5 Tree Nuts 83
4.3.6 Wheat 84
4.3.7 Soy 84
4.4 DNA–Based Methods 85
4.4.1 Tree Nuts 89
4.4.2 Crustacean Shellfish 90
4.5 Method Validation 90
4.5.1 Specificity and Cross–Reactivity 97
4.5.2 Robustness and Ruggedness 97
4.5.3 Sensitivity, LOD and LOQ 97
4.5.4 Accuracy and Trueness 98
4.5.5 Precision 98
References 99
5 GMO Analysis Methods for Food: From Today to Tomorrow 123
Özgür Çakır, Sinan Meriç and Şule Arı
5.1 Introduction 124
5.2 Methods for Detection, Identification and Quantification of GMOs in Food 135
5.2.1 Detection of GMOs by DNA–Based Methods 136
5.2.1.1 Polymerase Chain Reaction for GMO Detection 138
5.2.1.2 Real–Time PCR for GMO Quantification 140
5.2.2 Protein–Based Methods for GMO Detection and Quantification 141
5.2.2.1 ELISA (Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay) 142
5.2.2.2 Lateral Flow Strips 143
5.2.3 Phenotypic Detection of GMOs 144
5.2.4 Overall Assessment of Conventional Methods 145
5.2.5 New Detection Methods of GMOs 145
5.2.5.1 Amplification Based Detection Methods of GMOs 145
5.2.5.2 Biosensor–Based Detection Methods of GMOs 151
5.2.5.3 High–Throughput (HT) Techniques for GMO Detection 154
5.3 Conclusion 160
References 163
6 Determination of Antioxidant Compounds in Foodstuff 179
Amilcar L. Antonio, Eliana Pereira, José Pinela, Sandrina Heleno, Carla Pereira and Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
6.1 Introduction 179
6.2 Common Antioxidants in Foodstuff 180
6.3 Antioxidants for Bioactive or Preservative Purposes 184
6.4 Analysis of Antioxidants in Foods 190
6.4.1 Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds 190
6.4.1.1 Conventional Methods 192
6.4.1.2 Nonconventional Methods 192
6.4.1.3 Extraction Solvents and Surfactants 196
6.4.2 Analytical Methodologies for Antioxidants 197
6.4.2.1 Detection of Antioxidant Compounds 197
6.4.2.2 Determination of Individual Antioxidant Molecules 198
6.5 Conclusion 202
References 203
7 Analytical Methods for Pesticide Detection in Foodstuffs 221
S. Hrouzková
7.1 Introduction 221
7.1.1 Pesticide Residues in Foodstuffs 223
7.1.2 Analytical Methods for Pesticide Residue Analysis 224
7.2 Sample Preparation 225
7.2.1 Solvent–Based Extractions – Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE) 227
7.2.1.1 QuEChERS Extraction 227
7.2.1.2 Accelerated Solvent Extraction 229
7.2.1.3 Microwave–Assisted Extraction (MAE) 230
7.2.1.4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) 231
7.2.1.5 Liquid Phase Microextraction (LPME) 232
7.2.2 Sorption–Based Extractions 234
7.2.2.1 Solid–Phase Extraction (SPE) 234
7.2.2.2 Matrix Solid–Phase Dispersion (MSPD) 238
7.2.2.3 Microextraction by Packed Syringe (MEPS) 238
7.2.2.4 Solid–Phase Microextraction (SPME) 239
7.2.2.5 Stir–Bar SorptiveExtraction (SBSE) 240
7.3 Chromatographic Methods 241
7.3.1 Gas Chromatography 242
7.3.2 Fast Gas Chromatography 243
7.3.3 Liquid Chromatography 244
7.4 Detection of Pesticides 245
7.4.1 MS Detection 246
7.4.1.1 Ionization Techniques in GC–MS 246
7.4.1.2 Ionization Interfaces in LC–MS 247
7.4.1.3 MS Analyzers and Tandem MS 248
7.4.2 Ambient MS 250
7.5 Specific Problems of Pesticide Residue Analysis 252
7.6 Future Trends and Conclusions 254
Acknowledgment 254
References 255
8 Application of Chromatograpic Methods for Identification of Biogenic Amines in Foods of Animal Origin 271
César Aquiles Lázaro De La Torre and Carlos Adam Conte–Junio
8.1 Biogenic Amines 272
8.1.1 Definition 272
8.1.2 Classification 272
8.1.3 Synthesis 272
8.2 Importance of Biogenic Amines in Food of Animal Origin 273
8.2.1 Toxicological Aspect 274
8.2.2 Quality Indicators 275
8.2.3 Control and Prevention 276
8.3 Procedures for Chromatographic Methods in Biogenic Amines 277
8.3.1 Sample Processing 278
8.3.2 Analytical Determination 286
8.4 Chromatography Applications in Food of Animal Origin 288
8.4.1 Milk and Dairy Products 289
8.4.2 Fish and Seafood Products 291
8.4.3 Meat, Meat Products and Edible Byproducts 292
8.4.4 Chicken Meat and Chicken Meat Products 293
8.4.5 Eggs and Egg Products 293
8.4.6 Honey 294
8.5 Conclusion 294
Acknowledgments 295
References 295
9 Advances in Food Allergen Analysis 305
Joana Costa, Telmo J.R. Fernandes, Caterina Villa, M. Beatriz P.P. Oliveira and Isabel Mafra
9.1 Introduction 305
9.2 Proteins versus DNA as Targets for Food Allergen Analysis 307
9.2.1 Protein–Based Methods 308
9.2.1.1 ELISA 308
9.2.1.2 Immunosensors 310
9.2.1.3 MS Platforms 321
9.2.2 DNA–Based Techniques 332
9.2.2.1 Real–Time PCR Coupled to
HRM Analysis 332
9.2.2.2 Single–Tube Nested Real–Time PCR 333
9.2.2.3 Ligation–Dependent Probe Amplification 337
9.2.2.4 Genosensors 338
9.2.3 Aptasensors 343
9.3 Final Remarks 343
Acknowledgments 346
References 347
10 Food and Viral Contamination: Analytical Methods 361
Gloria Sánchez
10.1 Introduction 361
10.1.1 Virus Extraction from Food 364
10.1.2 Virus Extraction from Bilvalve Molluscs 364
10.1.3 Virus Extraction from Soft Fruits and Leafy Greens 367
10.1.4 Virus Extraction from Bottled Water 371
10.1.5 Virus Extraction from Other Food Products 373
10.2 Nucleic Acid Extraction and Purification 374
10.3 Virus Detection by Molecular Techniques 374
10.4 Assessment of Infectivity 376
10.5 Quality Controls 378
10.6 Conclusions 379
Acknowledgments 380
References 380
11 Application of Biosensors for Food Analysis 395
Viviana Scognamiglio, Amina Antonacci, Maya D. Lambreva, Fabiana Arduini, Giuseppe Palleschi, Simona C. Litescu, Udo Johanningmeier and Giuseppina Rea
11.1 The Agrifood Sector 396
11.2 Food Quality and Safety Concepts 397
11.3 Effect of Unsafe Food on Human Health 400
11.4 Revealing Methods for Food Components and Contaminants 402
11.5 Biosensors: Definition, Market and Application Fields 403
11.6 Biosensors and Bioassays for the Detection of Food Components and Contaminants 405
11.6.1 Biosensing Technologies for Glucose Detection 405
11.6.2 Biosensors and Bioassays to Reveal Glutamine 409
11.6.3 Biodetecting Methods for Gliadin 410
11.6.4 Enzyme Based–Biosensors for Phenols Detection 412
11.6.5 Biosensing Technology Trends for Pesticide Monitoring 414
11.6.6 Toxin Biodetection 419
11.6.7 Heavy Metal Monitoring by Biosensing Methodologies 420
11.7 Biosensors for Intelligent Food Packaging 422
11.8 Biosensor Technology to Sustain Precision Farming 423
11.9 Conclusions 424
Acknowledgments 426
References 426
12 Immunoassay Methods in Food Analysis 435
Pranav Tripathi, Satish Malik and Seema Nara
12.1 Introduction 436
12.2 Immunoassays 437
12.2.1 Principle and Significance of ELISA 438
12.2.2 Application of Immunoassays in Food Safety 439
12.3 Immunosensors 440
12.3.1 Electrochemical Transducers 441
12.3.1.1 Amperometric Transducers 441
12.3.1.2 Potentiometric Transducers 441
12.3.2 Piezoelectric Immunosensors 441
12.3.3 Optical Transducers 442
12.3.4 Application of Immunosensors in Food Safety 442
12.4 Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) 443
12.4.1 Applications of LFIA in Food Safety 444
12.5 Sample Processing in Food Analysis 445
12.6 Outlook 446
References 450