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Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering: Principles and Applications

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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 03 Feb 2017
Confectionery and chocolate manufacture has been dominated by large–scale industrial processing for several decades. It is often the case though, that a trial and error approach is applied to the development of new products and processes, rather than verified scientific principles.
Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering: Principles and Applications, Second edition, adds to information presented in the first edition on essential topics such as food safety, quality assurance, sweets for special nutritional purposes, artizan chocolate, and confectioneries. In addition, information is provided on the fading memory of viscoelastic fluids, which are briefly discussed in terms of fractional calculus, and gelation as a second order phase transition. Chemical operations such as inversion, caramelization, and the Maillard reaction, as well as the complex operations including  conching, drying, frying, baking, and roasting used in confectionery manufacture are also described.
This book provides food engineers, scientists, technologists and students in research, industry, and food and chemical engineering–related courses with a scientific, theoretical description and analysis of confectionery manufacturing, opening up new possibilities for process and product improvement, relating to increased efficiency of operations, the use of new materials, and new applications for traditional raw materials.

About the Author

Ferenc Mohos chaired the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus Confectionery Products Working Committee for two decades, whilst being Managing Director of his own consulting company, Food Quality 1992 Ltd., Budapest.  Presently, he is affiliated with the Szeged University and also the Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781118939772
ISBN-10: 1118939778
Pagini: 792
Dimensiuni: 176 x 246 x 40 mm
Greutate: 1.64 kg
Ediția: 2nd Edition
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Chichester, United Kingdom

Public țintă

Food engineers, Food scientists, Technologists in research and industry, Graduate students on relevant food and chemical engineering–related courses, Libraries and institutes

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Confectionery and chocolate manufacture has been dominated by large–scale industrial processing for several decades. It is often the case though, that a trial and error approach is applied to the development of new products and processes, rather than verified scientific principles.
Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering: Principles and Applications, Second edition, adds to information presented in the first edition on essential topics such as food safety, quality assurance, sweets for special nutritional purposes, artizan chocolate, and confectioneries. In addition, information is provided on the fading memory of viscoelastic fluids, which are briefly discussed in terms of fractional calculus, and gelation as a second order phase transition. Chemical operations such as inversion, caramelization, and the Maillard reaction, as well as the complex operations including  conching, drying, frying, baking, and roasting used in confectionery manufacture are also described.
This book provides food engineers, scientists, technologists and students in research, industry, and food and chemical engineering–related courses with a scientific, theoretical description and analysis of confectionery manufacturing, opening up new possibilities for process and product improvement, relating to increased efficiency of operations, the use of new materials, and new applications for traditional raw materials.

About the Author

Ferenc Mohos chaired the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus Confectionery Products Working Committee for two decades, whilst being Managing Director of his own consulting company, Food Quality 1992 Ltd., Budapest.  Presently, he is affiliated with the Szeged University and also the Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary.

Cuprins

Part I: Theoretical introduction
1 Principles of food engineering 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The Damköhler equations 6
1.3 Investigation of the Damköhler equations by means of similarity theory 8
1.4 Analogies 14
1.5 Dimensional analysis 16
1.6 System theoretical approaches to food engineering 19
1.7 Food safety and quality assurance 21
Further reading 22
2 Characterization of substances used in the confectionery industry 23
2.1 Qualitative characterization of substances 23
2.2 Quantitative characterization of confectionery products 33
2.3 Preparation of recipes 49
2.4 Composition of chocolate confectioneries biscuits and wafers made for special nutritional purposes 56
Further reading 60
3 Engineering properties of foods 61
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 Density 61
3.3 Fundamental functions of thermodynamics 65
3.4 Latent heat and heat of reaction 71
3.5 Thermal conductivity 76
3.6 Thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number 78
3.7 Mass diffusivity and Schmidt number 81
3.8 Dielectric properties 85
3.9 Electrical conductivity 91
3.10 Infrared absorption properties 95
3.11 Physical characteristics of food powders 96
Further reading 107
4 The rheology of foods and sweets 109
4.1 Rheology: its importance in the confectionery industry 109
4.2 Stress and strain 109
4.3 Solid behaviour 115
4.4 Fluid behaviour 120
4.5 Viscosity of solutions 159
4.6 Viscosity of emulsions 161
4.7 Viscosity of suspensions 164
4.8 Rheological properties of gels 166
4.9 Rheological properties of sweets 171
4.10 Rheological properties of wheat flour doughs 183
4.11 Relationship between food oral processing and rheology 193
Further reading 194
5 Introduction to food colloids 197
5.1 The colloidal state 197
5.2 Formation of colloids 199
5.3 Properties of macromolecular colloids 202
5.4 Properties of colloids of association 208
5.5 Properties of interfaces 210
5.6 Electrical properties of interfaces 219
5.7 Theory of colloidal stability: the DLVO theory 221
5.8 Stability and changes of colloids and coarse dispersions 224
5.9 Emulsion instability 233
5.10 Phase inversion 243
5.11 Foams 245
5.12 Gelation as a second–order phase transition 256
Further reading 261
Part II: Physical operations
6 Comminution 265
6.1 Changes during size reduction 265
6.2 Rittinger s surface theory 266
6.3 Kick s volume theory 267
6.4 The third or Bond theory 268
6.5 Energy requirement for comminution 268
6.6 Particle size distribution of ground products 269
6.7 Particle size distributions 273
6.8 Kinetics of grinding 275
6.9 Comminution by five–roll refiners 276
6.10 Grinding by a melangeur 280
6.11 Comminution by a stirred ball mill 284
Further reading 289
7 Mixing/kneading 290
7.1 Technical solutions to the problem of mixing 290
7.2 Power characteristics of a stirrer 290
7.3 Mixing time characteristics of a stirrer 292
7.4 Representative shear rate and viscosity for mixing 292
7.5 Calculation of the Reynolds number for mixing 292
7.6 Mixing of powders 294
7.7 Mixing of fluids of high viscosity 300
7.8 Effect of impeller speed on heat and mass transfer 301
7.9 Mixing by blade mixers 302
7.10 Mixing rolls 303
7.11 Mixing of two liquids 304
Further reading 304
8 Solutions 306
8.1 Preparation of aqueous solutions of carbohydrates 306
8.2 Solubility of sucrose in water 308
8.3 Aqueous solutions of sucrose and glucose syrup 309
8.4 Aqueous sucrose solutions containing invert sugar 311
8.5 Solubility of sucrose in the presence of starch syrup and invert sugar 312
8.6 Rate of dissolution 312
8.7 Solubility of bulk sweeteners 315
Further reading 316
9 Evaporation 317
9.1 Theoretical background: Raoult s law 317
9.2 Boiling point of sucrose/water solutions at atmospheric pressure 318
9.3 Application of a modification of Raoult s law to calculate the boiling point of carbohydrate/water solutions at decreased pressure 319
9.4 Vapour pressure formulae for carbohydrate/water solutions 323
9.5 Practical tests for controlling the boiling points of sucrose solutions 330
9.6 Modelling of an industrial working process for hard boiled sweets 331
9.7 Boiling points of bulk sweeteners 335
Further reading 335
10 Crystallization 337
10.1 Introduction 337
10.2 Crystallization from solution 337
10.3 Crystallization from melts 355
10.4 Crystal size distributions 371
10.5 Batch crystallization 374
10.6 Isothermal and non–isothermal recrystallization 375
10.7 Methods for studying the supermolecular structure of fat melts 376
10.8 Crystallization of glycerol esters: Polymorphism 381
10.9 Crystallization of cocoa butter 385
10.10 Crystallization of fat masses 398
10.11 Crystallization of confectionery fats with a high trans–fat portion 411
10.12 Modelling of chocolate cooling processes and tempering 414
10.13 EU programme ProPraline 421
Further reading 422
11 Gelling emulsifying stabilizing and foam formation 424
11.1 Hydrocolloids used in confectionery 424
11.2 Agar 424
11.3 Alginates 429
11.4 Carrageenans 432
11.5 Furcellaran 437
11.6 Gum arabic 437
11.7 Gum tragacanth 438
11.8 Guaran gum 439
11.9 Locust bean gum 439
11.10 Pectin 440
11.11 Starch 444
11.12 Xanthan gum 447
11.13 Gelatin 448
11.14 Egg proteins 453
11.15 Foam formation 458
Further reading 466
12 Transport 468
12.1 Types of transport 468
12.2 Calculation of flow rate of non–newtonian fluids 468
12.3 Transporting dessert masses in long pipes 470
12.4 Changes in pipe direction 471
12.5 Laminar unsteady flow 472
12.6 Transport of flour and sugar by airflow 472
Further reading 477
13 Pressing 478
13.1 Applications of pressing in the confectionery industry 478
13.2 Theory of pressing 478
13.3 Cocoa liquor pressing 480
Further reading 482
14 Extrusion 483
14.1 Flow through a converging die 483
14.2 Feeders used for shaping confectionery pastes 491
14.3 Extrusion cooking 495
14.4 Roller extrusion 497
Further reading 500
15 Particle agglomeration: instantization and tabletting 501
15.1 Theoretical background 501
15.2 Processes of agglomeration 512
15.3 Granulation by fluidization 514
15.4 Tabletting 516
Further reading 524
Part III: Chemical and complex operations: stability of sweets: artisan chocolate and confectioneries
16 Chemical operations (inversion and caramelization) ripening and complex operations 527
16.1 Inversion and caramelization 527
16.2 Acrylamide formation 538
16.3 Alkalization of cocoa material 540
16.4 Ripening 542
16.5 Complex operations 545
16.6 Drying/frying baking and roasting 562
Further reading 577
17 Water activity shelf life and storage 579
17.1 Water activity 579
17.2 Shelf life and storage 594
17.3 Storage scheduling 601
Further reading 602
18 Stability of food systems 604
18.1 Common use of the concept of food stability 604
18.2 Stability theories: types of stability 604
18.3 Shelf life as a case of marginal stability 606
18.4 Stability matrix of a food system 607
Further reading 608
19 Artisan chocolate and confectioneries 609
19.1 Actuality of artisanship in the confectionery practice 609
19.2 The characteristics of the artisan products 609
19.3 Raw materials and machinery 610
19.4 The characteristics of the artisan confectionery technologies 611
19.5 Managing an artisan workshop 611
19.6 An easy and effective shaping technology for producing praline bars 612
Further reading 614
Part IV: Appendices
1 Data on engineering properties of materials used and made by the confectionery industry 617
A1.1 Carbohydrates 617
A1.2 Oils and fats 626
A1.3 Raw materials semi–finished products and finished products 626
2 Comparison of Brix and Baumé concentrations of aqueous sucrose solutions at 20 C (68 F) 643
3 Survey of fluid models: some trends in rheology 645
A3.1 Decomposition method for calculation of flow rate of rheological models 645
A3.2 Calculation of the friction coefficient ( ) of non–newtonian fluids in the laminar region 653
A3.3 Tensorial representation of constitutive equations: The fading memory of viscoelastic fluids 654
A3.4 Computer simulations in food rheology and science 660
A3.5 Ultrasonic and photoacoustic testing 660
Further reading 661
4 Fractals 663
A4.1 Irregular forms: fractal geometry 663
A4.2 Box–counting dimension 664
A4.3 Particle–counting method 665
A4.4 Fractal backbone dimension 666
Further reading 666
5 Introduction to structure theory 668
A5.1 The principles of the structure theory of blickle and seitz 668
A5.2 Modelling a part of fudge processing plant by structure theory 673
Further reading 674
6 Technological layouts 675
Further reading 686
References 687
Index 737

Recenzii

"This book provides food engineers, scientists, technologists and students in research, industry, and food and chemical engineering–related courses with a scientific, theoretical description and analysis of confectionery manufacturing, opening up new possibilities for process and product improvement, relating to increased efficiency of operations, the use of new materials, and new applications for traditional raw materials" Expofairs, September 2017