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Chemical Engineering for Non–Chemical Engineers

Editat de Jack Hipple
Notă GoodReads:
en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 24 Mar 2017
Covers the basic concepts of chemical engineering in an easy to understand way enabling non–chemical engineers to better interface with and understand chemical engineers and the basic concepts of chemical processing, design, and operation  Chemical engineering is a skill and profession in widespread within chemical manufacturing, oil and gas refining and processing, food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, plastics production and use, electronics manufacturing, as well as in new energy recovery and generation technologies. Though these types of processes are typically designed by chemical engineers, and it is important that those who interface with chemical engineers in the design and operation of these plants understand basic chemical engineering principles, allowing them to better understand the basis for operation and design of their facilities, the constraints of process operations, and the business opportunities which chemical engineering expertise can support and enable. Chemical Engineering for Non–Chemical Engineers covers: Important differences between laboratory and industrial scale practice of chemistry, consequences of scale–up mistakes, and approaches needed to safely scale a lab reaction process to a commercial scale, including the fundamentals of reactive chemicals hazards Basics chemical reaction equations, balancing, economies of scale, and the nature of various types of flow sheets Basics and characterization of fluid flow and various pumping and transport systems How separation processes such as distillation, absorption, stripping, chromatography, membranes, and leaching are used to recover and purify chemical products How evaporation and crystallization are used to concentrate and purify products The basic fundamentals and safety aspects of solids drying, handling, and storage Approaches to controlling chemical processes, including the safety aspects of controlling chemical processes and the need for process control to produce products within defined quality limits Non–chemical engineers interacting with chemical engineers in many industries from operators, marketers selling the products produced by these plants, managers, and those who interface with chemical engineers in the intellectual property area will be able to understand concepts in order to intelligently communicate with chemical engineers.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781119169581
ISBN-10: 1119169585
Pagini: 416
Dimensiuni: 162 x 239 x 27 mm
Greutate: 0.70 kg
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Hoboken, United States

Public țintă

  • Chemists, biologists, other engineers (mechanical, civil, petroleum, environmental), process technicians, government personnel, and legal personnel concerned with safety, security, and environmental issues in the , chemical industry
  • Commodity and specialty chemical and materials manufacturers, oil and petrochemical manufacturers, and equipment suppliers to the petrochemical, chemical, and materials industries

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Covers the basic concepts of chemical engineering in an easy to understand way enabling non–chemical engineers to better interface with and understand chemical engineers and the basic concepts of chemical processing, design, and operation  Chemical engineering is a skill and profession in widespread within chemical manufacturing, oil and gas refining and processing, food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, plastics production and use, electronics manufacturing, as well as in new energy recovery and generation technologies. Though these types of processes are typically designed by chemical engineers, and it is important that those who interface with chemical engineers in the design and operation of these plants understand basic chemical engineering principles, allowing them to better understand the basis for operation and design of their facilities, the constraints of process operations, and the business opportunities which chemical engineering expertise can support and enable. Chemical Engineering for Non–Chemical Engineers covers: Important differences between laboratory and industrial scale practice of chemistry, consequences of scale–up mistakes, and approaches needed to safely scale a lab reaction process to a commercial scale, including the fundamentals of reactive chemicals hazards Basics chemical reaction equations, balancing, economies of scale, and the nature of various types of flow sheets Basics and characterization of fluid flow and various pumping and transport systems How separation processes such as distillation, absorption, stripping, chromatography, membranes, and leaching are used to recover and purify chemical products How evaporation and crystallization are used to concentrate and purify products The basic fundamentals and safety aspects of solids drying, handling, and storage Approaches to controlling chemical processes, including the safety aspects of controlling chemical processes and the need for process control to produce products within defined quality limits Non–chemical engineers interacting with chemical engineers in many industries from operators, marketers selling the products produced by these plants, managers, and those who interface with chemical engineers in the intellectual property area will be able to understand concepts in order to intelligently communicate with chemical engineers.

Cuprins

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
1 What Is Chemical Engineering? 1
What Do Chemical Engineers Do? 4
Topics to Be Covered 6
Discussion Questions 13
Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 13
Additional Resources 14
2 Safety and Health: The Role and Responsibilities in Chemical Engineering Practice 15
Basic Health and Safety Information: The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 15
Procedures 19
Fire and Flammability 20
Chemical Reactivity 23
Toxicology 23
Emergency Response 24
Transportation Emergencies 24
HAZOP 25
Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) 28
Summary 29
Discussion Questions 31
Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 32
Additional Resources 34
3 The Concept of Balances 35
Mass Balance Concepts 35
Energy Balances 40
Momentum Balance 41
Summary 42
Discussion Questions 43
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 43
Additional Resources 44
4 Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Reaction Engineering 45
Stoichiometry and Thermodynamics 45
Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Reaction Engineering 50
Physical Properties Affecting Energy Aspects of a Reaction System 53
Kinetics and Rates of Reaction 55
Catalysts 59
Summary 61
Discussion Questions 63
Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 65
Additional Resources 67
5 Flow Sheets, Diagrams, and Materials of Construction 69
Materials of Construction 73
Summary 74
Discussion Questions 75
Review Questions (Answers are in the Appendix with Explanations) 76
Additional Resources 77
6 Economics and Chemical Engineering 79
Summary 85
Discussion Questions 86
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 86
Additional Resources 87
7 Fluid Flow, Pumps, and Liquid Handling and Gas Handling 89
Fluid Properties 89
Characterizing Fluid Flow 93
Pump Types 96
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for Centrifugal Pumps 100
Positive Displacement Pumps 101
Variable Speed Drive Pumps 103
Water “Hammer” 103
Piping and Valves 103
Flow Measurement 104
Gas Laws 105
Gas Flows 107
Gas Compression 107
Discussion Questions 109
Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 110
Additional Resources 113
8 Heat Transfer and Heat Exchangers 115
Types of Heat Exchangers 117
Heat Transfer Coefficient 121
Utility Fluids 123
Air Coolers 124
Scraped Wall Exchangers 124
Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers 125
Leaks 125
Mechanical Design Concerns 125
Cleaning Heat Exchangers 126
Radiation Heat Transfer 127
High Temperature Transfer Fluids 127
Summary 129
Discussion Questions 130
Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 131
Additional Resources 133
9 Reactive Chemicals Concepts 135
Summary 137
Discussion Questions 138
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 139
Additional Resources 140
10 Distillation 141
Raoult’s Law 146
Batch Distillation 148
Flash Distillation 148
Continuous Multistage Distillation 149
Reflux Ratio and Operating Line 150
Pinch Point 154
Feed Plate Location 154
Column Internals and Efficiency 155
Unique Forms of Distillation 156
Multiple Desired Products 161
Column Internals and Efficiencies 163
Tray Contacting Systems 163
Packed Towers in Distillation 165
Summary 167
Discussion Questions 168
Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 169
Additional Resources 172
11 Other Separation Processes: Absorption, Stripping, Adsorption, Chromatography, Membranes 173
Absorption 173
Stripping/Desorption 178
Adsorption 179
Ion Exchange 185
Reverse Osmosis 187
Gas Separation Membranes 189
Leaching 191
Liquid–Liquid Extraction 192
Summary 197
Discussion Questions 197
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 198
Additional Resources 201
12 Evaporation and Crystallization 203
Evaporation 203
Operational Issues with Evaporators 205
Vacuum and Multi]effect Evaporators 207
Crystallization 209
Crystal Phase Diagrams 214
Supersaturation 215
Crystal Purity and Particle Size Control 216
Summary 216
Discussion Questions 217
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 217
Additional Resources 219
13 Liquid–Solids Separation 221
Filtration and Filters 221
Filtration Rates 222
Filtration Equipment 223
Centrifuges 227
Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution 228
Liquid Properties 228
Summary 228
Discussion Questions 231
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 231
Additional Resources 233
14 Drying 235
Rotary Dryers 236
Spray Dryers 237
Fluid Bed Dryers 238
Belt Dryer 239
Freeze Dyers 240
Summary 240
Discussion Questions 242
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 242
Additional Resources 243
15 Solids Handling 245
Safety and General Operational Concerns 245
Solids Transport 248
Pneumatic Conveyors 251
Solids Size Reduction Equipment 256
Cyclones 259
Screening 260
Hoppers and Bins 261
Solids Mixing 263
Discussion Questions 264
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 265
Additional Resources 265
Videos of Solids Handling Equipment 266
16 Tanks, Vessels, and Special Reaction Systems 267
Categories 267
Corrosion 268
Heating and Cooling 275
Power Requirements 275
Tanks and Vessels as Reactors 278
Static Mixers 280
Summary 280
Discussion Questions 281
Chapter 16 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 281
Additional Resources 282
17 Chemical Engineering in Polymer Manufacture and Processing 285
What are Polymers? 285
Polymer Types 287
Polymer Properties and Characteristics 288
Polymer Processes 290
Polymer Additives 293
End]Use Polymer Processing 293
Plastics Recycling 294
Summary 295
Discussion Questions 295
Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 296
Additional Resources 297
18 Process Control 299
Elements of a Process Control System 300
Control Loops 302
On–off Control 303
Proportional Control 304
Proportional–Integral Control 305
Derivative Control 306
Ratio Control 307
Cascade Control 307
Measurement Systems 308
Control Valves 308
Valve Capacity 312
Utility Failure 312
Process Control as a Buffer 313
Instruments that “Lie” 314
Summary 314
Discussion Questions 316
Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 316
Additional Resources 318
19 Beer Brewing Revisited 321
Appendix I: Future Challenges for Chemical Engineers and Chemical Engineering 325
Appendix II: Additional Downloadable Resources 331
Appendix III: Answers to Chapter Review Questions 337
Index 000