Evolutia

 

Evolution 1. K-T Asteroid Theory of Dinosaur Extinction (1980)Walter Alvarez postulates that high levels of iridium found in rock core samples around the world provide evidence that an asteroid impact caused the extinction of dinosaurs. Iridium, a common mineral found in asteroids, was discovered in the clay layer at what is known as the K-T boundary. This layer, at 65 million years, lies between the rocks of the Cretaceous and the Tertiary periods and coincides with the mass extinction of dinosaurs.Teoria asteroizilor K-T a disparitiei dinozaurilor(1980)Walter Alvarez postuleaza ca nivelul ridicat de iridiu gasit in mostrele de roca din lume, dovedesc ca impactul unui asteroid este cauza disparitiei dinozaurilor.Iridiul, un mineral comun gasit in asteroizi, a fost descoperit in argila cunoscuta si sub numele de K-T frontiera. Aceasta argila , la 65 de milioane de ani, leneveste langa rocile din Cretacic si perioada             si coincide cu disparitia masiva a dinozaurilor.2. First Dinosaur Fossils Identified (1820s – 1840s)In 1822, geologist William Buckland uncovers some really big teeth in England. At the time, there is no word to describe his finds. Twenty years later, in 1842, Sir Richard Owen comes up with the word “dinosaur” to describe several spectacular creatures whose fossils are discovered across England. Megalosaurus is the first dinosaur ever named.Identificarea primelor fosile de dinozaur (1820s-1840s)In 1822, geologistul William Buckland descopera in Anglia niste dinti imensi intr-adevar. La acea vreme, nu existau cuvinte sa descrie descoperirea lui. 20 de ani mai tarziu, in 1842, Sir Richard Owen vine cu cuvantul “dinosaur” pentru a descrie creatura spectaculara a carui fosila a fost descoperita de-a lungul Angliei. Megalosaurus este primul dinozaur denumit vreodata.3. Potential for Life Created (1953)Graduate student Stanley Miller, combining the ideas of other scientists, reproduces the early atmosphere of Earth by creating a chamber containing only hydrogen, water, methane and ammonia. He boils the water and exposes the elements to an electric discharge like lightning, simulating Earth’s early processes. After a week, Miller finds organic compounds have formed, including some amino acids, the “building blocks of life.”Stanley Miller proaspatul absolvent, combina ideile altor oameni de stiinta, reproduce prima atmosfera a Pamantului creand o camera care contine numai hidrogen, apa, metan si amoniac.Fierbe apa si expune elementele unui camp electric descarcat ca o lumina, simuland procesele timpurii ale Pamantului. Dupa o saptamana, Miller gaseste formati compusi organici, incluzand cativa aminoacizi, “ construieste originile vietii”.4. New Life-forms Discovered Around Hydrothermal Vents (1977)Bob Ballard and the crew of the submersible Alvin find amazing new life-forms living completely independent of the sun’s energy around deep-sea, hydrothermal vents. These undersea geysers form along volcanic mid-ocean ridges, where cold seawater penetrates deep into cracks in the Earth’s crust. Heated water rises back out and the scalding vent water mixes with cold ocean-bottom seawater, creating a rising plume of warm, black fluid filled with mineral particles. The chemicals support a thriving ecosystem on the ocean floor.Bob Ballards si echipa unui submarin Alvin gasesc noi forme de viata uimitoare, care traiau complet independentsub energia soarelui pe fundul oceanului, curenti hidrotermali. Aceste gheizere subacvatice de langa creste vulcanice de pe fundul oceanului, unde apa rece penetreaza adanc in crusta pamantului. Apa fierbinte se ridica inapoi si curentul fierbinte de apa se amesteca cu fundul oceanului rece, creand o dara de caldura, lichidul negru se amesteca cu particule minerale. Substantele chimice sustin ecosistemul prosper pe fundul oceanului.5. The Burgess Shale (1909)Charles Walcott exposes a mother lode of Cambrian fossils high in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing a glimpse of what life was like on Earth more than 500 million years ago. He collects more than 65,000 specimens and classifies each, discovering that the fossils are ancestors of living animals.Charles Walcott descopera un zacamant de minereu al unei fosile Cambrian la inaltime in Muntii Canadei, asigurand o sclipire a vietii de pe pamant de acum 500 de milioane de ani. El strange mai mult de 65 000 de specii si le clasifica pe fiecare, descoperind ca fosilele sunt stramosii unor animale adevarate.6. Classification of Species (1735)Carl Linnaeus, considered the “father of taxonomy,” develops a system for naming, ranking and classifying all forms of life that is still in use today (although many changes have been made). The Linnaean system, based on shared physical characteristics, uses a hierarchy starting with kingdoms divided into classes, then into orders, families, genera and species.Carl Linnaeus considerat ca “parintele taxonomiei”, dezvolta un sistem pentru denumirea, ierarhizarea si clasificarea tuturor formelor de viata care este folosit si in zilele noastre( cu toate ca s-au facut multe schimbari de atunci). Sistemul Linnaean, bazat pe caracteristici fizice , foloseste inceputuri ierarhice cu domenii impartite in clase, apoi in ordine, familii, genuri si specii.7. Theory of Natural Selection (1858)Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, in which he challenges contemporary beliefs about the creation of life on Earth. Darwin had served as an unpaid naturalist on the HMS Beagle, which set out on a five-year scientific expedition to the Pacific coast of South America in early 1832. The data he collected on the expedition, especially specimens from the Galapagos Islands, was the inspiration for his theories on evolution by the mechanism of natural selection. His work has been at the center of controversy ever since it was published.Charles Darwin publica “…………………………………………………”in care schimba convingerile contemporane despre crearea vietii pe pamant. Darwin a fost servit ca un naturalist neplatit la ……………..8. Australopithecus Afarensis or “Lucy” (1974)Donald Johanson discovers the partial skeleton of a 3.2 million-year-old female hominid in Ethiopia. Johnson dubs his find “Lucy” after the Beatles’ song Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds, which was playing on the radio as the team celebrated the find.Donald Johanson descopera o parte de schelet al unei femele hominid de 3,2 milioane de ani in Ethiopia. Johnson copiaza descoperirea lui “Lucy” dupa cantecul formatiei Beatles Lucy in the sky with Diamonds, pe care o ascultau la radio atunci cand echipa sarbatorea descoperirea lui.9. Laetoli Footprints (1978)A team led by Mary Leaky discovers fossilized Australopithecus footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania. The footprints, dated to 3.5 million years ago, were formed when two individuals walked over wet volcanic ash that had hardened like cement. These human ancestors had perfect, two-footed strides, indicating that the hominids walked upright.O echipa condusa de Mary leaky descopera amprenta fosilizata a unui Australopithecus in Laetoli, Tanzania. Urmele, dateaza de 3,5 milioane de ani, au fost facute cand doi indivizi paseau peste lava vulcanica umeda, ulterior transformandu-se in ciment. Acesti stramosi umani aveau doua urme perfecte de picioare, indicand mersul lor biped normal.10. Toumai skull (2002)Michel Brunet unearths the oldest hominid fossil to date in the desert of the central African nation of Chad. The fragments of this 6 to 7 million-year-old skull, with characteristics resembling humans, were found outside eastern and southern Africa, suggesting human evolution may have been taking place all across the continent.Michel Brunet descopera cea mai veche fosila umanoida in desertul dein Africa centrala din Chad. fragmente din teasta veche de 6-7 milioane de ani, cu similitudine caracteristice omului, au fost gasite in africa de est si de sud, sugerand evolutia omului de-a lungul continentului

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