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Biofuels and Bioenergy

Editat de John Love, John A. Bryant
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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – 31 Mar 2017
With increased public and scientific attention driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, and concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, the production of fuels by biological systems is becoming increasingly important as the world seeks to move towards renewable, sustainable energy sources.
Biofuels and Bioenergy presents a broad, wide–ranging and informative treatment of biofuels. The book covers historical, economic, industrial, sociological and ecological/environmental perspectives as well as dealing with all the major scientific issues associated with this important topic.
With contributions from a range of leading experts covering key aspects, including:
 Conventional biofuels.
 Basic biology, biochemistry and chemistry of different types and classes of biofuel.
 Current research in synthetic biology and GM in the development and exploitation of new biofuel sources.
 Aspects relating to ecology and land use, including the fuel v food dilemma.
 Sustainability of different types of biofuel.
 Ethical aspects of biofuel production.
Biofuels and Bioenergy provides students and researchers in biology, chemistry, biochemistry and chemical engineering with an accessible review of this increasingly important subject.
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9781118350560
ISBN-10: 1118350561
Pagini: 328
Dimensiuni: 176 x 250 x 20 mm
Greutate: 0.79 kg
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Chichester, United Kingdom

Public țintă

Primary Market:
Postgraduate students in biology, biotechnology and agriculture. Industry professionals.
Secondary Market:
Advanced undergraduate students, students in geography and social science, economists and journalists.
 

Textul de pe ultima copertă

With increased public and scientific attention driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, and concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, the production of fuels by biological systems is becoming increasingly important as the world seeks to move towards renewable, sustainable energy sources.
Biofuels and Bioenergy presents a broad, wide–ranging and informative treatment of biofuels. The book covers historical, economic, industrial, sociological and ecological/environmental perspectives as well as dealing with all the major scientific issues associated with this important topic.
With contributions from a range of leading experts covering key aspects, including:
 Conventional biofuels.
 Basic biology, biochemistry and chemistry of different types and classes of biofuel.
 Current research in synthetic biology and GM in the development and exploitation of new biofuel sources.
 Aspects relating to ecology and land use, including the fuel v food dilemma.
 Sustainability of different types of biofuel.
 Ethical aspects of biofuel production.
Biofuels and Bioenergy provides students and researchers in biology, chemistry, biochemistry and chemical engineering with an accessible review of this increasingly important subject.

Cuprins

List of Contributors xiii
Preface xv
List of Abbreviations xix
1 Biofuels: The Back Story 1
John A. Bryant and John Love
Summary 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Some history 1
1.2.1 Wood and charcoal 1
1.2.2 Dung as fuel 2
1.2.3 Oils and fats 2
1.2.4 Peat 3
1.3 Fossil fuels 4
1.3.1 Coal 4
1.3.2 Petroleum Oil 5
1.3.3 Natural gas 6
1.4 Fossil fuels and Carbon Dioxide 6
1.4.1 The Club of Rome 6
1.4.2 Climate change 7
1.5 Alternative Energy Sources 9
1.5.1 Introduction 9
1.5.2 Environmental Energy Sources 9
1.5.3 Nuclear power 15
1.5.4 Hydrogen 17
1.6 Biofuels 18
Selected references and suggestions for further reading 19
2 Biofuels in Operation 21
Lionel Clarke
Summary 21
2.1 Fuels for Transport 21
2.2 Future Trends in Fuels Requirements and Technology 24
2.3 Engines and Fuels Progress vs Inertia 26
2.4 Engine Constraints, Fuel Specifications and Enhanced Performance 28
2.5 Biofuels Implications and Opportunities 32
2.5.1 Introduction 32
2.5.2 Ethanol 32
2.5.3 Biodiesel 33
2.6 Advanced Biofuels as Alternatives to Ethanol and FAME 37
2.7 Biofuels for Aviation; Biojet 40
2.8 Impact of Future Trends in Engine Design on Retail Biofuels 42
2.9 Conclusion 43
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 43
3 Anaerobic Digestion 45
John Bombardiere and David A. Stafford
Summary 45
3.1 History and Development of Anaerobic Digestion 45
3.1.1 Introduction 45
3.1.2 Mixtures of Micro Organisms 46
3.2 Anaerobic Digestion: The Process 47
3.2.1 General Biochemistry 47
3.2.2 Design Types 47
3.2.3 Complete Mix Design 47
3.2.4 Plug Flow Digesters 48
3.2.5 High Dry Solids AD Systems 49
3.2.6 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) 50
3.2.7 Anaerobic Filters 50
3.3 Commercial applications and benefits 51
3.3.1 In the United Kingdom 51
3.3.2 In the USA 51
3.3.3 In Germany 52
3.3.4 Overall Benefits 52
3.4 Ethanol Production Linked with Anaerobic Digestion 53
3.5 Financial and Economic Aspects 54
3.6 UK and US Government Policies and Anaerobic Digestion an overview 55
3.7 Concluding Comments 56
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 57
4 Plant Cell Wall Polymers 59
Stephen C. Fry
Summary 59
4.1 Nature and Biological Roles of Primary and Secondary Cell Walls 59
4.2 Polysaccharide Composition of Primary and Secondary Cell Walls 60
4.2.1 Typical dicots 60
4.2.2 Differences in Certain Dicots 67
4.2.3 Differences in Monocots 67
4.2.4 Differences in Gymnosperms 68
4.2.5 Differences in Non seed Land plants 68
4.2.6 Differences in Charophytes 68
4.3 Post synthetic Modification of Cell wall Polysaccharides 70
4.3.1 C ross linking of cell wall polysaccharides 70
4.3.2 Hydrolysis of Cell wall Polysaccharides 72
4.3.3 Cutting and Pasting (Transglycosylation) of Cell wall Polysaccharide Chains 75
4.4 Polysaccharide Biosynthesis 77
4.4.1 General Features 77
4.4.2 At the Plasma Membrane 77
4.4.3 In the Golgi System 78
4.4.4 Delivering the Precursors sugar Nucleotides 79
4.5 Non polysaccharide Components of the Plant Cell Wall 80
4.5.1 Extensins and Other (Glyco)Proteins 80
4.5.2 Polyesters 83
4.5.3 Lignin 84
4.5.4 Silica 84
4.6 Conclusions 85
Acknowledgements 85
Appendix 85
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 85
5 Ethanol Production from Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass 89
Leah M. Brown, Gary M. Hawkins and Joy Doran–Peterson
Summary 89
5.1 Brief History of Fuel Ethanol Production 89
5.2 Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane and Corn 92
5.3 Lignocellulosic Biomass as Feedstocks for Ethanol Production 93
5.3.1 The Organisms 93
5.3.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass 96
5.3.3 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass 99
5.3.4 Effect of Inhibitory Compounds on Fermenting Microorganisms 100
5.4 Summary 102
5.5 Examples of Commercial Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Plants 103
5.5.1 Beta Renewables/Biochemtex Commercial Cellulosic Ethanol Plants in Italy, Brazil, USA and Slovak Republic 103
5.5.2 Poet DSM Project Liberty First Commercial Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the USA 103
5.5.3 Abengoa Hugoton, Kansas commercial plant and MSW to ethanol Demonstration Plant, Salamanca 103
Selected References, Suggestions for Further Reading and Useful Websites 104
6 Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerols and Biodiesel 105
John A. Bryant
Summary 105
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 Synthesis of Triacylglycerol 107
6.2.1 The Metabolic Pathway 107
6.2.2 Potential for Manipulation 110
6.3 Productivity 111
6.4 Sustainability 114
6.5 More Recently Exploited and Novel Sources of Lipids for Biofuels 114
6.5.1 Higher Plants 114
6.5.2 Algae 115
6.5.3 Prokaryotic Organisms 116
6.6 Concluding Remarks 117
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 117
7 Development of Miscanthus as a Bioenergy Crop 119
John Clifton Brown, Jon McCalmont and Astley Hastings
Summary 119
7.1 Introduction 119
7.2 Developing Commercial Interest 122
7.3 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential 127
7.4 Perspectives for now and for the Future 128
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 129
8 Mangrove Palm, Nypa fruticans: 3 in 1 Tree for Integrated Food/Fuel and Eco Services 133
C.B. Jamieson, R.D. Lasco and E.T. Rasco
Summary 133
8.1 Introduction: the Food vs Fuel and ILUC Debates 133
8.2 Integrated Food Energy Systems (IFES): a Potential Solution 134
8.2.1 Main Features of IFES 134
8.2.2 Baseline Productivity 136
8.3 Land use: the Importance of Forest Ecosystem Services 137
8.4 Sugar Palms: Highly Productive Multi Purpose Trees 138
8.5 Nipa (Nipa fruticans): a Mangrove Sugar Palm with Great Promise 140
8.6 Conclusion 141
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 141
9 The Use of Cyanobacteria for Biofuel Production 143
David J. Lea Smith and Christopher J. Howe
Summary 143
9.1 Essential Aspects of Cyanobacterial Biology 143
9.1.1 General Features 143
9.1.2 Photosynthesis and Carbon Dioxide Fixation 144
9.1.3 Nitrogen Fixation 146
9.2 Commercial Products Currently Derived from Cyanobacteria 146
9.3 Cyanobacteria Culture 147
9.4 Cyanobacterial Genomes and Genetic Modification for Biofuel Production 148
9.5 Industrial Production of Biofuels from Cyanobacteria 152
9.6 Conclusion 154
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 154
10 Third Generation Biofuels from the Microalga, Botryococcus braunii 157
Charlotte Cook, Chappandra Dayananda, Richard K. Tennant and John Love
Summary 157
10.1 Botryococcus braunii 157
10.2 Microbial Interactions 160
10.3 Botryococcus braunii as a Production Platform for Biofuels or
Chemicals 161
10.3.1 Hydrocarbons, Lipids and Sugars 161
10.3.2 Controlling and Enhancing Productivity 163
10.3.3 Alternative Culture Systems 165
10.3.4 Harvesting Botryococcus Biomass and Hydrocarbons 166
10.3.5 Processing Botryococcus into an Alternative Fuel 166
10.4 Improving Botryococcus 167
10.5 Future Prospects and Conclusion 169
Selected References and Suggestions of Further Reading 170
11 Strain Selection Strategies for Improvement of Algal Biofuel Feedstocks 173
Leyla T. Hathwaik and John C. Cushman
Summary 173
11.1 Introduction 173
11.2 Lipids in Microalgae 174
11.3 Starch in Microalgae 175
11.4 Metabolic Interconnection Between Lipid and Starch Biosynthesis 176
11.5 Strategies for the Selection of Microalgae Strains with Enhanced Biofuel Feedstock Traits 177
11.5.1 Manipulation of Growth Conditions 177
11.5.2 Genetic Mutagenesis 177
11.5.3 F low Cytometry 178
11.5.4 Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting 181
11.5.5 Buoyant Density Centrifugation 183
11.6 Conclusions 185
Acknowledgements 185
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 185
12 Algal Cultivation Technologies 191
Alessandro Marco Lizzul and Michael J. Allen
Summary 191
12.1 Introduction 191
12.2 Lighting 192
12.3 Mixing 194
12.4 Control Systems and Construction Materials 196
12.5 Algal Production Systems at Laboratory Scale 197
12.6 Algal Production in Open Systems 198
12.6.1 Pond Based Systems 198
12.6.2 Membrane Reactors 200
12.7 Algal production in Closed Systems 201
12.7.1 Introduction 201
12.7.2 Plate or Panel Based Systems 201
12.7.3 Horizontal Tubular Systems 203
12.7.4 Bubble Columns 205
12.7.5 Airlift Reactors 207
12.8 Concluding Comments 209
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 209
13 Biofuels from Macroalgal Biomass 213
Jessica Adams
Summary 213
13.1 Macroalgal resources in the UK 213
13.2 Suitability of macroalgae for biofuel production 214
13.3 Biofuels from Macroalgae 217
13.3.1 Introduction 217
13.3.2 Ethanol from laminarin, mannitol and alginate 217
13.3.3 Ethanol from cellulose 219
13.3.4 Butanol 220
13.3.5 Anaerobic digestion 221
13.3.6 Thermochemical conversions 223
13.4 Future prospects 223
13.5 Conclusion 224
Acknowledgements 224
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 224
14 Lipid based Biofuels from Oleaginous Microbes 227
Lisa A. Sargeant, Rhodri W. Jenkins and Christopher J. Chuck
Summary 227
14.1 Introduction 227
14.2 Microalgae 229
14.3 Oleaginous Yeasts 231
14.4 Feedstocks for Heterotrophic Microbial Cultivation 231
14.5 The Biochemical Process of Lipid Accumulation in Oleaginous Yeast 232
14.6 Lipid Profile of Oleaginous Microbes 236
14.7 Lipid Extraction and Processing 237
14.8 Concluding Comments 237
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 239
15 Engineering Microbial Metabolism for Biofuel Production 241
Thomas P. Howard
Summary 241
15.1 Introduction 241
15.2 Designer Biofuels 242
15.2.1 Introduction 242
15.2.2 Isoprenoid Derived Biofuels 243
15.2.3 Higher Alcohols 245
15.2.4 Fatty Acid Derived Biofuels 247
15.2.5 Petroleum Replica Hydrocarbons 249
15.3 Towards Industrialisation 251
15.3.1 Introduction 251
15.3.2 Bioconsolidation 251
15.3.3 Molecular and Cellular Redesign 255
15.3.4 Biofuel Pumps 256
15.3.5 Synthetic Biology and Systems Engineering 257
15.4 Conclusion 258
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 259
16 The Sustainability of Biofuels 261
J.M. Lynch
Summary 261
16.1 Introduction 261
16.2 Bioenergy policies 262
16.3 Economics of bioenergy markets 263
16.4 Environmental issues 264
16.5 Life Cycle Assessment 266
16.5.1 General features 266
16.5.2 OECD Copenhagen workshop, 2008 267
16.6 Conclusions 270
Selected references and suggestions for further reading 271
17 Biofuels and Bioenergy Ethical Aspects 273
John A. Bryant and Steve Hughes
Summary 273
17.1 Introduction to ethics 273
17.1.1 How do we Make Ethical or Moral Decisions? 273
17.1.2 Environmental ethics 275
17.2 Biofuels and Bioenergy Ethical Background 276
17.3 The Key Ethical Issues 276
17.3.1 Biofuel production and the growth of Food Crops 276
17.3.2 Is growth of Biofuel Crops Sustainable? 278
17.3.3 Biofuel Production, Land Allocation and Human Rights 279
17.4 Concluding comment 283
Selected references and suggestions for further reading 283
18 Postscript 285
John Love and John A. Bryant
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading 287
Index 289

Notă biografică

About the Editors
John Love and John A. Bryant, Biosciences, College Of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, UK