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Basin Analysis: Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment

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Notă GoodReads:
en Limba Engleză Carte Paperback – 09 Aug 2013
Basin Analysis is an advanced undergraduate and postgraduate text aimed at understanding sedimentary basins as geodynamic entities. The rationale of the book is that knowledge of the basic principles of the thermo–mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere, the dynamics of the mantle, and the functioning of sediment routing systems provides a sound background for studying sedimentary basins, and is a pre–requisite for the exploitation of resources contained in their sedimentary rocks. The third edition incorporates new developments in the burgeoning field of basin analysis while retaining the successful structure and overall philosophy of the first two editions.
The text is divided into four parts that establish the geodynamical environment for sedimentary basins and the physical state of the lithosphere, followed by a coverage of the mechanics of basin formation, an integrated analysis of the controls on the basin–fill and its burial and thermal history, and concludes with an application of basin analysis principles in petroleum play assessment, including a discussion of unconventional hydrocarbon plays.
The text is richly supplemented by appendices, providing mathematical derivations of a wide range of processes affecting the formation of basins and their sedimentary fills. Many of these appendices include practical exercises that give the reader hands–on experience of quantitative solutions to important basin analysis processes.
Now in full colour and a larger format, this third edition is a comprehensive update and expansion of the previous editions, and represents a rigorous yet accessible guide to problem solving in this most integrative of geoscientific disciplines.


There is a free companion website available for this book at www.wiley.com/go/basinanalysis

On the site you will find:
  • Downloadable versions of the illustrations within the book
  • Practical exercises to work through
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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9780470673768
ISBN-10: 0470673761
Pagini: 642
Ilustrații: illustrations (chiefly color), maps (chiefly color)
Dimensiuni: 220 x 274 x 26 mm
Greutate: 1.57 kg
Ediția: 3rd Edition
Editura: Wiley
Locul publicării: Chichester, United Kingdom

Public țintă

Primary Market: Advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students taking a course in Basin Analysis or Petroleum Geology as part of an earth science program. Secondary Market: Researchers in sedimentology, tectonic and earth surface processes. Practicing sedimentologists in industry such as the petroleum industry.

Textul de pe ultima copertă

Basin Analysis is an advanced undergraduate and postgraduate text aimed at understanding sedimentary basins as geodynamic entities. The rationale of the book is that knowledge of the basic principles of the thermo–mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere, the dynamics of the mantle, and the functioning of sediment routing systems provides a sound background for studying sedimentary basins, and is a pre–requisite for the exploitation of resources contained in their sedimentary rocks. The third edition incorporates new developments in the burgeoning field of basin analysis while retaining the successful structure and overall philosophy of the first two editions.
The text is divided into four parts that establish the geodynamical environment for sedimentary basins and the physical state of the lithosphere, followed by a coverage of the mechanics of basin formation, an integrated analysis of the controls on the basin–fill and its burial and thermal history, and concludes with an application of basin analysis principles in petroleum play assessment, including a discussion of unconventional hydrocarbon plays.
The text is richly supplemented by appendices, providing mathematical derivations of a wide range of processes affecting the formation of basins and their sedimentary fills. Many of these appendices include practical exercises that give the reader hands–on experience of quantitative solutions to important basin analysis processes.
Now in full colour and a larger format, this third edition is a comprehensive update and expansion of the previous editions, and represents a rigorous yet accessible guide to problem solving in this most integrative of geoscientific disciplines.


There is a free companion website available for this book at www.wiley.com/go/basinanalysis

On the site you will find:
  • Downloadable versions of the illustrations within the book
  • Practical exercises to work through

Cuprins

Companion website details x
Preface to the third edition xi
Part 1 The foundations of sedimentary basins 1
1 Basins in their geodynamic environment 3
Summary 3
1.1 Introduction and rationale 3
1.2 Compositional zonation of the Earth 6
1.2.1 Oceanic crust 6
1.2.2 Continental crust 7
1.2.3 Mantle 8
1.3 Rheological zonation of the Earth 8
1.3.1 Lithosphere 8
1.3.2 Sub–lithospheric mantle 10
1.4 Geodynamic background 10
1.4.1 Plate tectonics, seismicity and deformation 10
1.4.2 The geoid 12
1.4.3 Topography and isostasy 14
1.4.4 Heat flow 14
1.4.5 Cycles of plate reorganisation 15
1.5 Classification schemes of sedimentary basins 15
1.5.1 Basin–forming mechanisms 16
2 The physical state of the lithosphere 20
Summary 20
2.1 Stress and strain 21
2.1.1 Stresses in the lithosphere 21
2.1.2 Strain in the lithosphere 23
2.1.3 Linear elasticity 25
2.1.4 Flexure in two dimensions 27
2.1.5 Flexural isostasy 28
2.1.6 Effects of temperature and pressure on rock density 29
2.2 Heat flow 31
2.2.1 Fundamentals 31
2.2.2 The geotherm 31
2.2.3 Radiogenic heat production 33
2.2.4 Effect of erosion and sediment blanketing on the geotherm 36
2.2.5 Transient effects of erosion and deposition on the continental geotherm 37
2.2.6 Effect of variable thermal conductivity 38
2.2.7 Time–dependent heat conduction: the case of cooling oceanic lithosphere 39
2.2.8 Convection, the adiabat and mantle viscosity 41
2.3 Rock rheology and lithospheric strength profiles 43
2.3.1 Fundamentals on constitutive laws 43
2.3.2 Rheology of the mantle 44
2.3.3 Rheology of the continental crust 46
2.3.4 Strength profiles of the lithosphere 47
Part 2 The mechanics of sedimentary basin formation 51
3 Basins due to lithospheric stretching 53
Summary 53
3.1 Introduction 54
3.1.1 Basins of the rift drift suite 54
3.1.2 Models of continental extension 54
3.2 Geological and geophysical observations in regions of continental extension 56
3.2.1 Cratonic basins 56
3.2.2 Rifts 60
3.2.3 Failed rifts 67
3.2.4 Continental rim basins 67
3.2.5 Proto–oceanic troughs 68
3.2.6 Passive continental margins 70
3.3 Uniform stretching of the continental lithosphere 72
3.3.1 The reference uniform stretching model 72
3.3.2 Uniform stretching at passive continental margins 76
3.4 Modifications to the uniform stretching model 78
3.4.1 Protracted periods of rifting 78
3.4.2 Non–uniform (depth–dependent) stretching 80
3.4.3 Pure versus simple shear 83
3.4.4 Elevated asthenospheric temperatures 84
3.4.5 Magmatic activity 84
3.4.6 Induced mantle convection 85
3.4.7 Radiogenic heat production 86
3.4.8 Flexural compensation 86
3.4.9 The depth of necking 86
3.4.10 Phase changes 87
3.5 A dynamical approach to lithospheric extension 88
3.5.1 Generalities 88
3.5.2 Forces on the continental lithosphere 90
3.5.3 Rheology of the continental lithosphere 92
3.5.4 Numerical and analogue experiments on strain rate during continental extension 93
3.6 Estimation of the stretch factor and strain rate history 95
3.6.1 Estimation of the stretch factor from thermal subsidence history 95
3.6.2 Estimation of the stretch factor from crustal thickness changes 95
3.6.3 Estimation of the stretch factor from forward tectonostratigraphic modelling 96
3.6.4 Inversion of strain rate history from subsidence data 97
3.6.5 Multiple phases of rifting 97
4 Basins due to flexure 98
Summary 98
4.1 Basic observations in regions of lithospheric flexure 99
4.1.1 Ice cap growth and melting 99
4.1.2 Oceanic seamount chains 100
4.1.3 Flexure beneath sediment loads 101
4.1.4 Ocean trenches 103
4.1.5 Mountain ranges, fold–thrust belts and foreland basins 104
4.2 Flexure of the lithosphere: geometry of the defl ection 104
4.2.1 Deflection of a continuous plate under a point load (2D) or line load (3D) 104
4.2.2 Deflection of a broken plate under a line load 106
4.2.3 Deflection of a continuous plate under a distributed load 107
4.2.4 Bending stresses 108
4.3 Flexural rigidity of oceanic and continental lithosphere 109
4.3.1 Controls on the fl exural rigidity of oceanic lithosphere 109
4.3.2 Flexure of the continental lithosphere 111
4.4 Lithospheric buckling and in–plane stress 116
4.4.1 Theory: linear elasticity 116
4.4.2 Lithospheric buckling in nature and in numerical experiments 117
4.4.3 Origin of intraplate stresses 118
4.5 Orogenic wedges 118
4.5.1 Introduction to basins at convergent boundaries 118
4.5.2 The velocity fi eld at sites of plate convergence 120
4.5.3 Critical taper theory 120
4.5.4 Double vergence 125
4.5.5 Analogue models 127
4.5.6 Numerical approaches to orogenic wedge development 128
4.5.7 Low Péclet number intracontinental orogens 130
4.5.8 Horizontal in–plane forces during convergent orogenesis 130
4.6 Foreland basin systems 131
4.6.1 Introduction 131
4.6.2 Depositional zones 132
4.6.3 Diffusive models of mountain belt erosion and basin deposition 135
4.6.4 Coupled tectonic–erosion dynamical models of orogenic wedges 138
4.6.5 Modelling aspects of foreland basin stratigraphy 144
5 Effects of mantle dynamics 153
Summary 153
5.1 Fundamentals and observations 154
5.1.1 Introduction: mantle dynamics and plate tectonics 154
5.1.2 Buoyancy and scaling relationships: introductory theory 155
5.1.3 Flow patterns in the mantle 156
5.1.4 Seismic tomography 159
5.1.5 Plate mode versus plume mode 159
5.1.6 The geoid 162
5.2 Surface topography and bathymetry produced by mantle flow 164
5.2.1 Introduction: dynamic topography and buoyancy 164
5.2.2 Dynamic topography associated with subducting slabs 167
5.2.3 Dynamic topography associated with supercontinental assembly and dispersal 170
5.2.4 Dynamic topography associated with small–scale convection 173
5.2.5 Pulsing plumes 175
5.2.6 Hotspots, coldspots and wetspots 176
5.3 Mantle dynamics and magmatic activity 178
5.3.1 Melt generation during continental extension 179
5.3.2 Large igneous provinces 180
5.3.3 The northern North Atlantic and the Iceland plume 180
5.3.4 The Afar region, Ethiopia 180
5.4 Mantle dynamics and basin development 181
5.4.1 Topography, denudation and river drainage 181
5.4.2 Cratonic basins 183
5.4.3 The history of sea–level change and the fl ooding of continental interiors 183
6 Basins associated with strike–slip deformation 188
Summary 188
6.1 Overview 189
6.1.1 Geological, geomorphological and geophysical observations 189
6.1.2 Diversity of basins in strike–slip zones 193
6.2 The structural pattern of strike–slip fault systems 194
6.2.1 Structural features of the principal displacement zone (PDZ) 194
6.2.2 Role of oversteps 200
6.3 Basins in strike–slip zones 201
6.3.1 Geometric properties of pull–apart basins 201
6.3.2 Kinematic models for pull–apart basins 203
6.3.3 Continuum development from a releasing bend: evolutionary sequence of a pull–apart basin 206
6.3.4 Strike–slip deformation and pull–apart basins in obliquely convergent orogens 207
6.4 Modelling of pull–apart basins 209
6.4.1 Numerical models 209
6.4.2 Sandbox experiments: pure strike–slip versus transtension 215
6.4.3 Application of model of uniform extension to pull–apart basins 215
6.4.4 Pull–apart basin formation and thin–skinned tectonics: the Vienna Basin 216
6.5 Characteristic depositional systems 217
Part 3 The sedimentary basin–fill 223
7 The sediment routing system 225
Summary 225
7.1 The sediment routing system in basin analysis 226
7.2 The erosional engine 227
7.2.1 Weathering and the regolith 227
7.2.2 Terrestrial sediment and solute yields 233
7.2.3 BQART equations 243
7.2.4 Chemical weathering and global biogeochemical cycles 246
7.3 Measurements of erosion rates 246
7.3.1 Rock uplift, exhumation and surface uplift 246
7.3.2 Point–wise erosion rates from thermochronometers 247
7.3.3 Catchment–scale erosion rates from cosmogenic radionuclides 248
7.3.4 Catchment erosion rates using low–temperature thermochronometers 251
7.3.5 Erosion rates at different temporal and spatial scales 254
7.4 Channel–hillslope processes 256
7.4.1 Modelling hillslopes 256
7.4.2 Bedrock river incision 259
7.5 Long–range sediment transport and deposition 260
7.5.1 Principles of long–range sediment transport 260
7.5.2 Sediment transport in marine segments of the sediment routing system 263
7.5.3 Depositional sinks: sediment storage 265
7.5.4 Downstream fining 271
7.6 Joined–up thinking: teleconnections in source–to–sink systems 273
7.6.1 Provenance and tracers; detrital thermochronology 273
7.6.2 Mapping of the sediment routing system fairway 275
7.6.3 Landscape evolution models and response times 275
7.6.4 Interaction of axial and longitudinal drainage 282
8 Basin stratigraphy 284
Summary 284
8.1 A primer on process stratigraphy 285
8.1.1 Introduction 285
8.1.2 Accommodation, sediment supply and sea level 285
8.1.3 Simple 1D forward models from fi rst principles 286
8.2 Stratigraphic cycles: defi nition and recognition 289
8.2.1 The hierarchy from beds to megasequences 289
8.2.2 Forcing mechanisms 299
8.2.3 Unforced cyclicity 306
8.3 Dynamical approaches to stratigraphy 308
8.3.1 Carbonate stratigraphy 308
8.3.2 Siliciclastic stratigraphy 308
8.3.3 Shelf–edge and shoreline trajectories; clinoform progradation 310
8.4 Landscapes into rock 315
8.4.1 Stratigraphic completeness 315
8.4.2 Gating models 318
8.4.3 Hierarchies and upscaling 322
8.4.4 Magnitude–frequency relationships 324
9 Subsidence history 326
Summary 326
9.1 Introduction to subsidence analysis 327
9.2 Compressibility and compaction of porous sediments: fundamentals 327
9.2.1 Effective stress 328
9.2.2 Overpressure 328
9.3 Porosity and permeability of sediments and sedimentary rocks 330
9.3.1 Measurements of porosity in the subsurface 331
9.3.2 Porosity–depth relationships 333
9.3.3 Porosity and layer thicknesses during burial 334
9.4 Subsidence history and backstripping 335
9.4.1 Backstripping techniques 335
9.5 Tectonic subsidence signatures 339
10 Thermal history 343
Summary 343
10.1 Introduction 344
10.2 Theory: the Arrhenius equation and maturation indices 344
10.3 Factors influencing temperatures and paleotemperatures in sedimentary basins 345
10.3.1 Effects of thermal conductivity 345
10.3.2 Effects of internal heat generation in sediments 347
10.3.3 Effects of sedimentation rate and sediment blanketing 348
10.3.4 Effects of advective heat transport by fluids 349
10.3.5 Effects of surface temperature changes 349
10.3.6 Heat flow around salt domes 350
10.3.7 Heat flow around fractures 351
10.3.8 Heat flows around sills, dykes and underplates 351
10.3.9 Thermal effects of delamination 354
10.4 Measurements of thermal maturity in sedimentary basins 354
10.4.1 Estimation of formation temperature from borehole measurements 355
10.4.2 Organic indicators 355
10.4.3 Low–temperature thermochronometers 358
10.4.4 Mineralogical and geochemical indices 360
10.5 Application of thermal maturity measurements 361
10.5.1 Vitrinite refl ectance (Ro) profi les 361
10.5.2 Fission track age–depth relationships 366
10.5.3 Quartz cementation 366
10.6 Geothermal and paleogeothermal signatures of basin types 367
Part 4 Application to petroleum play assessment 371
11 Building blocks of the petroleum play 373
Summary 373
11.1 From basin analysis to play concept 374
11.2 The petroleum system and play concept 374
11.2.1 Play defi nition 374
11.2.2 The petroleum system 375
11.2.3 Definition and mapping of the play fairway 376
11.3 The source rock 379
11.3.1 The biological origin of petroleum 380
11.3.2 Source rock prediction 384
11.3.3 Detection and measurement of source rocks 391
11.4 The petroleum charge 393
11.4.1 Some chemical and physical properties of petroleum 393
11.4.2 Petroleum generation 395
11.4.3 Primary migration: expulsion from the source rock 396
11.4.4 Secondary migration: through carrier bed to trap 398
11.4.5 Alteration of petroleum 401
11.4.6 Tertiary migration: leakage to surface 402
11.5 The reservoir 402
11.5.1 Introduction 403
11.5.2 Reservoir properties: porosity and permeability 404
11.5.3 Primary or depositional factors affecting reservoir quality 404
11.5.4 Diagenetic changes to reservoir rocks 406
11.5.5 Reservoir architecture and heterogeneity 408
11.5.6 Carbonate reservoir quality in relation to sea–level change 410
11.5.7 Models for clay mineral early diagenesis in sandstone reservoirs 413
11.5.8 Fractures 413
11.6 The regional topseal 415
11.6.1 The mechanics of sealing 416
11.6.2 Factors affecting caprock effectiveness 416
11.6.3 The depositional settings of caprocks 417
11.7 The trap 419
11.7.1 Introduction: trap classification 419
11.7.2 Structural traps 420
11.7.3 Stratigraphic traps 430
11.7.4 Intrusive traps: injectites 432
11.7.5 Hydrodynamic traps 433
11.7.6 Timing of trap formation 433
11.8 Global distribution of petroleum resources 434
12 Classic and unconventional plays 436
Summary 436
12.1 Classic petroleum plays 437
12.1.1 Introduction 437
12.1.2 Niger Delta 437
12.1.3 Campos Basin, Brazil 439
12.1.4 Santos Basin pre–salt play, Brazil 440
12.1.5 Northwest Shelf, Australia (Dampier sub–basin) 441
12.2 Unconventional petroleum plays 442
12.2.1 Introduction 442
12.2.2 Tight gas 443
12.2.3 Shale gas 444
12.2.4 Coal seam gas 445
12.2.5 Gas hydrates 445
12.2.6 Oil sands and heavy oil 446
12.3 Geosequestration: an emerging application 449
Appendices: derivations and practical exercises 455
1 Rock density as a function of depth 457
2 Airy isostatic balance 459
3 Deviatoric stress at the edge of a continental block 461
4 Lateral buoyancy forces in the lithosphere 463
5 Derivation of flexural rigidity and the general flexure equation 465
6 Flexural isostasy 468
7 The 1D heat conduction equation 470
8 Derivation of the continental geotherm 472
9 Radiogenic heat production 473
10 Surface heat fl ow and the radiogenic contribution 475
11 Radiogenic heat production of various rock types 477
12 Effects of erosion and deposition on the geotherm 479
13 Effects of variable radiogenic heating and thermal conductivity on the geotherm in the basin–fill 481
14 The mantle adiabat and peridotite solidus 485
15 Lithospheric strength envelopes 487
16 Rift zones: strain rate, extension velocity and bulk strain 490
17 The reference uniform extension model 492
18 Boundary conditions for lithospheric stretching 494
19 Subsidence as a function of the stretch factor 496
20 Inversion of the stretch factor from thermal subsidence data 497
21 Calculation of the instantaneous syn–rift subsidence 499
22 The transient temperature solution 501
23 Heat flow during uniform stretching using a Fourier series 503
24 The stretch factor for extension along crustal faults 505
25 Protracted rifting times during continental extension 507
26 Lithospheric extension and melting 508
27 Igneous underplating an isostatic balance 509
28 Uniform stretching at passive margins 510
29 Flexure of continuous and broken plates 511
30 The time scale of fl exural isostatic rebound or subsidence 513
31 Flexural rigidity derived from uplifted lake paleoshorelines 515
32 Deflection under a distributed load Jordan (1981) solution 516
33 Deflection under a distributed load numerical solution of Wangen (2010) 517
34 Deflection under a periodic distributed load 519
35 Flexural unloading from a distributed load the cantilever effect 520
36 Bending from multiple loads: the Hellenides and Apennines in central Italy Albania 522
37 Flexural profiles, subsidence history and the flexural forebulge unconformity 524
38 Bending stresses in an elastic plate 525
39 In–plane forces and surface topography during orogenesis 527
40 The onset of convection 529
41 A global predictor for sediment discharge: the BQART equations 530
42 Modelling hillslopes 532
43 The sediment continuity (Exner) equation 534
44 Use of the stream power rule 535
45 Effects of tectonic uplift on stream longitudinal profiles 537
46 Estimation of the uplift rate from an area–slope analysis 539
47 Uplift history from stream profiles characterised by knickpoint migration 540
48 Sediment deposition using the heat equation 541
49 Axial versus transverse drainage 542
50 Downstream fining of gravel 545
51 Sinusoidal eustatic change superimposed on background tectonic subsidence 546
52 Isostatic effects of absolute sea–level change 547
53 Sea–level change resulting from sedimentation 548
54 The consolidation line 549
55 Relation between porosity and permeability the Kozeny–Carman relationship 550
56 Decompaction 551
57 Backstripping 555
58 From decompaction to thermal history 556
59 Advective heat transport by fl uids 562
60 Heat flow in fractured rock 563
References 564
Index 603

Notă biografică

Philip Allen graduated with a Bachelor s degree in Geology from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth and a PhD from Cambridge University. He held lectureships at Cardiff and Oxford, and professorships at Trinity College Dublin, ETH–Zürich and Imperial College London. He is a process–oriented Earth scientist with particular interests in the interactions and feedbacks between the solid Earth and its exosphere through the critical interface of the Earth s surface.
John Allen has over 30 years of experience in the international oil and gas industry as a petroleum geologist, exploration manager, senior exploration advisor, and business strategist with British Petroleum (BP) and BHP Billiton, as well as several years of experience as a non–executive director. He is currently based in Melbourne, Australia.