Attachment, Evolution, and the Psychology of Religion

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en Limba Engleză Carte Hardback – October 2004
Why has religion played such a strong role in all human cultures throughout history? Despite the remarkable diversity of forms of religious belief, why have certain common themes consistently emerged? And why do people in modern societies vary widely in whether and what they believe, and how they act on their faith? In this compelling book, Lee Kirkpatrick addresses these essential questions and more, establishing a comprehensive framework for approaching the psychology of religion from an evolutionary perspective. Within this framework, attachment theory provides a powerful lens through which to reconceptualize many aspects of religious belief and behavior. Provocative and engaging, the book brings fresh ideas to bear on universal concerns and outlines a bold agenda for future research.

Rejecting the notion that humans possess religion-specific instincts or adaptations, Kirkpatrick argues that religion instead is a collection of byproducts of numerous psychological mechanisms and systems that evolved for other functions. Among these systems is attachment, which has been the subject of growing scientific interest over the last decade. Systematically applying attachment theory to religion, chapters identify key parallels between early attachment relationships and adult romantic relationships, on the one hand, and individuals' perceived relationships with God, on the other. Seeing the deity as an attachment figure offers new ways of thinking about such core religious phenomena as images of God, prayer, religious development, and conversion. Along with attachment, the book considers how a variety of other evolved psychological mechanisms/m-/including intrasexual competition for status and mates, kinship, social exchange, and coalitional psychology/m-/underlie other aspects of religious belief and behavior. Also provided are promising evolutionary hypotheses for phenomena outside the margins of mainstream religion, such as parapsychological beliefs.
Written in a lucid, straightforward style, this integrative work will spark discussion, debate, and further investigation among readers in social and personality psychology and the psychology of religion, as well as clinical psychology and religious studies. It will serve as a text in advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the psychology of religion, evolutionary psychology, attachment theory, and personality.
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ISBN-13: 9781593850883
ISBN-10: 1593850883
Pagini: 400
Dimensiuni: 161 x 231 x 30 mm
Greutate: 0.68 kg
Ediția: 1
Editura: Guilford Publications


Introduction. An Ambitious Agenda. Scientific. Comprehensive. Explanatory. Psychology of .... Religion. A New Direction. Attachment Theory. Evolutionary Psychology. The Plan of This Book. Introduction to Attachment Theory. Backdrop. The Attachment System. Other Related Systems. The Phenomenology of Attachment. Individual Differences in Attachment in Childhood. Multiple Attachment Figures. Internal Working Models and the Stability of Attachment Patterns. Attachment in Adulthood. Attachment and Adult Romantic Relationships. Individual Differences in Adult Romantic Attachment. Factorial and Dimensional Models. The Formation and Development of Adult Love Bonds. An Alternative Approach to Adult Attachment. Attachment and Evolutionary Psychology. Summary and Conclusions. God as an Attachment Figure. Religion as Relationship. But Is It Really an Attachment Relationship? Seeking and Maintaining Proximity to God. Proximity in Belief and Myth. Facilitating Psychological Proximity. Prayer. Other Religious Behaviors. God as a Haven of Safety. Crisis and Distress. Illness and Injury. Death and Grieving. God as a Secure Base. Phenomenology. Psychological Outcomes. Responses to Separation and Loss. Summary and Conclusions. More on Religion as an Attachment Process: Extensions and Limitations. Religion and Love. What Kind of Love? Romantic Attachment vs. Attachment to God. God as a Parental Figure. Individual Differences in Images of God. God as a Benevolent Caregiver. God as Controlling and Demanding. Children's Beliefs about God. Beyond God: Extensions and Limitations. To Generalize, or Not to Generalize? The Problem with Parsimony. Other Forms of Attachment (or Not) in Religion. Relationships with Other Supernatural Beings. Relationships with Religious Leaders. Relationships with Fellow Worshipers and Other Peers. Relationships with Groups. Nontheistic Religions. Summary and Conclusions. Individual Differences in Attachment and Religion: The Correspondence Hypothesis. Mental Models and the Correspondence Hypothesis. Correspondence in Childhood and Adolescence. Correspondence in Adulthood. Correspondence Across Cultures. Internal Working Models of Self and Others. Continuity from Childhood to Adulthood. The Socialized Correspondence Hypothesis. The Two-Level Correspondence Hypothesis. 'Socialization' as an Alternative Explanation. The Inadequacy of 'Socialization' as Explanation. The Epidemiology of Beliefs. Individual Differences Revisited. Summary and Conclusions. God as a Substitute Attachment Figure: The Compensation Hypothesis. Individual Differences and Religious Conversion. Individual Differences in Childhood Attachment and Conversion. Sudden Religious Conversion. Other Evidence for a Compensation Model. A Two-Process Model. Individual Differences in Adult Attachment. Contextual Factors in Religious Change. Separation and Loss. Bereavement. Relationship Dissolution. Unavailability of Attachment Figures. Perceived Inadequacy of Human Attachment Figures. Cultural Factors. Summary and Conclusions. Attachment in Context: Introduction to Evolutionary Psychology. Evolutionary Psychology as a Paradigm or Metatheory. Adaptation and Natural Selection. Adaptations. 'Selfish Genes' and Inclusive Fitness. Domain-Specificity and the Mental-Organs Model. Nature 'versus' Nurture. Stone-Age Minds in Modern Environments. Individual Differences in Evolutionary Context. Stable Environmental Differences. Direct Genetic Effects. Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies. Early Environmental Calibration. An Example of Facultative Strategies: Human Mating. Are Evolutionary Explanations Unfalsifiable? Some Illustrative Examples: Politics, Music, and Sports. Summary and Conclusions. Attachment Theory in Modern Evolutionary Perspective. Childhood Attachment in Modern Evolutionary Perspective. Parental Caregiving and Parent-Offspring Conflict. Individual Differences in Childhood Attachment. Attachment and Reproductive Strategies. The Belsky, Steinberg,

Notă biografică

Lee A. Kirkpatrick, PhD, is Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in Psychology at the College of William and Mary in Virginia. He has published numerous research articles and book chapters on topics related to adult attachment, the psychology of religion, and evolutionary psychology.