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Anatomia lui Gray. Gray's Anatomy for Students (Gray - Anatomie)

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Notă GoodReads:
en Limba Engleză Carte Paperback – 03 Apr 2014

Atlas de anatomie Gray, ediția a 3-a în limba engleză. Ediția a 2-a a atlasului este disponibilă și în limba română.

2015 BMA Medical Book Awards Highly Commended in Basic and Clinical Sciences Category! Anatomy texts just don't get any better than Gray's Anatomy for Students! Now in its 3rd edition, this completely revised medical textbook continues its focus on just the core information you need for your anatomy courses, presenting everything in an easy-to-read, visually appealing format that facilitates study.

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Specificații

ISBN-13: 9780702051319
ISBN-10: 0702051314
Pagini: 1192
Ilustrații: Approx. 1000 illustrations (1000 in full color)
Dimensiuni: 216 x 276 x 45 mm
Greutate: 2.40 kg
Ediția: 3rd Edition.
Editura: Elsevier
Seria Gray - Anatomie


Public țintă

Medical Students, Medical Faculty

Cuprins

1 The body
What is anatomy? 4
How can gross anatomy be studied? 4
Important anatomical terms 4
Imaging 7
Diagnostic imaging techniques 7
Nuclear medicine imaging 10
Image interpretation 11
Plain radiography 12
Computed tomography 12
Magnetic resonance imaging 13
Nuclear medicine imaging 13
Safety in imaging 13
Body systems 14
Skeletal system 14
Cartilage 14
Bone 15
Joints 20
Skin and fascias 26
Skin 26
Fascia 26
Muscular system 27
Cardiovascular system 29
Lymphatic system 31
Lymphatic vessels 31
Lymph nodes 32
Lymphatic trunks and ducts 32
Nervous system 34
Central nervous system 34
Functional subdivisions of the CNS 34
Somatic part of the nervous system 35
Visceral part of the nervous system 41
Other systems 52
Clinical cases 53
2 Back
Conceptual overview 56
General description 56
Functions 57
Support 57
Movement 57
Protection of the nervous system 58
Component parts 58
Bones 58
Muscles 60
Vertebral canal 62
Spinal nerves 63
Relationship to other regions 64
Head 64
Thorax, abdomen, and pelvis 65
Limbs 65
Key features 65
Long vertebral column and short spinal cord 65
Intervertebral foramina and spinal nerves 66
Innervation of the back 66
Regional anatomy 67
Skeletal framework 67
Vertebrae 67
Intervertebral foramina 75
Posterior spaces between vertebral arches 75
Joints 79
Joints between vertebrae in the back 79
Ligaments 82
Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments 82
Ligamenta flava 82
Supraspinous ligament and ligamentum
nuchae 83
Interspinous ligaments 84
Back musculature 86
Superficial group of back muscles 86
Intermediate group of back muscles 92
Deep group of back muscles 93
Suboccipital muscles 99
Spinal cord 101
Vasculature 102
Meninges 104
Arrangement of structures in the vertebral
canal 106
Spinal nerves 107
Surface anatomy 112
Back surface anatomy 112
Absence of lateral curvatures 112
Primary and secondary curvatures in the sagittal
plane 112
Useful nonvertebral skeletal landmarks 112
How to identify specific vertebral spinous
processes 114
Visualizing the inferior ends of the spinal cord and
subarachnoid space 115
Identifying major muscles 116
Clinical cases 118
3 Thorax
Conceptual overview 124
General description 124
Functions 125
Breathing 125
Protection of vital organs 125
Conduit 125
Component parts 125
Thoracic wall 125
Superior thoracic aperture 126
Inferior thoracic aperture 126
Diaphragm 127
Mediastinum 128
Pleural cavities 128
Relationship to other regions 129
Neck 129
Upper limb 130
Abdomen 130
Breast 130
Key features 130
Vertebral level TIV/V 130
Venous shunts from left to right 132
Segmental neurovascular supply of thoracic
wall 132
Sympathetic system 134
Flexible wall and inferior thoracic aperture 134
Innervation of the diaphragm 134
Regional anatomy 137
Pectoral region 137
Breast 137
Muscles of the pectoral region 139
Thoracic wall 141
Skeletal framework 141
Intercostal spaces 147
Diaphragm 156
Venous drainage 158
Innervation 158
Movements of the thoracic wall and diaphragm
during breathing 158
Pleural cavities 159
Pleura 159
Lungs 163
Mediastinum 176
Middle mediastinum 177
Superior mediastinum 204
Posterior mediastinum 215
Anterior mediastinum 223
Surface anatomy 224
Thorax surface anatomy 224
How to count ribs 224
Surface anatomy of the breast in women 225
Visualizing structures at the TIV/V vertebral
level 226
Visualizing structures in the superior
mediastinum 227
Visualizing the margins of the heart 227
Where to listen for heart sounds 228
Visualizing the pleural cavities and lungs, pleural
recesses, and lung lobes and fissures 228
Where to listen for lung sounds 229
Clinical cases 233
44 Abdomen
Conceptual overview 246
General description 246
Functions 247
Houses and protects major viscera 247
Breathing 249
Changes in intra-abdominal pressure 249
Component parts 250
Wall 250
Abdominal cavity 251
Inferior thoracic aperture 253
Diaphragm 253
Pelvic inlet 254
Relationship to other regions 254
Thorax 254
Pelvis 254
Lower limb 255
Key features 256
Arrangement of abdominal viscera in the
adult 256
Skin and muscles of the anterior and lateral
abdominal wall and thoracic intercostal
nerves 259
The groin is a weak area in the anterior abdominal
wall 260
Verterbral Level L1 262
The gastrointestinal system and its derivatives are
supplied by three major arteries 262
Venous shunts from left to right 264
All venous drainage from the gastrointestinal
system passes through the liver 265
Abdominal viscera are supplied by a large
prevertebral plexus 266
Regional anatomy 268
Surface topography 268
Four-quadrant pattern 268
Nine-region pattern 269
Abdominal wall 270
Superficial fascia 270
Anterolateral muscles 272
Extraperitoneal fascia 278
Peritoneum 279
Innervation 279
Arterial supply and venous drainage 280
Lymphatic drainage 282
Groin 282
Inguinal canal 284
Inguinal hernias 288
Abdominal viscera 292
Peritoneum 292
Peritoneal cavity 293
Organs 297
Arterial supply 327
Venous drainage 337
Lymphatics 341
Innervation 341
Posterior abdominal region 348
Posterior abdominal wall 349
Viscera 355
Vasculature 366
Lymphatic system 372
Nervous system in the posterior abdominal
region 374
Sympathetic trunks and splanchnic nerves 374
Surface anatomy 382
Abdomen surface anatomy 382
Defining the surface projection of the
abdomen 383
How to find the superficial inguinal ring 384
How to determine lumbar vertebral levels 385
Visualizing structures at the L1 vertebral
level 386
Visualizing the position of major blood
vessels 387
Using abdominal quadrants to locate major
viscera 388
Defining surface regions to which pain from the gut
is referred 389
Where to find the kidneys 390
Where to find the spleen 390
Clinical cases 391
5 Pelvis and perineum
Conceptual overview 406
General description 406
Functions 406
Contain and support bladder, rectum, anal canal,
and reproductive tracts 406
Anchors the roots of the external genitalia 408
Component parts 408
Pelvic inlet 408
Pelvic walls 409
Pelvic outlet 409
Pelvic floor 411
Pelvic cavity 411
Perineum 412
Relationship to other regions 414
Abdomen 414
Lower limb 414
Key features 415
The pelvic cavity projects posteriorly 415
Important structures cross the ureters in the pelvic
cavity 415
The prostate is anterior to rectum 417
The perineum is innervated by sacral spinal cord
segments 417
Nerves are related to bone 418
Parasympathetic innervation from spinal cord levels
S2 to S4 controls erection 418
Muscles and fascia of the pelvic floor and perineum
intersect at the perineal body 419
Gender determines the course of the urethra 419
Regional anatomy 421
Pelvis 421
Bones 421
Joints 426
Orientation 428
Gender differences 428
True pelvis 429
Vicera 438
Fascia 458
Peritoneum 460
Nerves 462
Blood vessels 471
Lymphatics 477
Perineum 478
Borders and ceiling 478
Ischio-anal fossae and their anterior recesses 480
Anal triangle 480
Urogenital triangle 483
Somatic nerves 490
Visceral nerves 492
Blood vessels 492
Veins 494
Lymphatics 496
Surface anatomy 497
Surface anatomy of the pelvis and perineum 497
Orientation of the pelvis and perineum in the
anatomical position 497
How to define the margins of the perineum 497
Identification of structures in the anal triangle 499
Identification of structures in the urogenital triangle
of women 500
Identification of structures in the urogenital triangle
of men 501
Clinical cases 504
6 Lower limb
Conceptual overview 512
General introduction 512
Function 513
Support the body weight 513
Locomotion 515
Component parts 517
Bones and joints 517
Muscles 518
Relationship to other regions 520
Abdomen 520
Pelvis 521
Perineum 521
Key points 521
Innervation is by lumbar and sacral spinal
nerves 521
Nerves related to bone 525
Superficial veins 525
Regional anatomy 526
Bony pelvis 526
Proximal femur 529
Hip joint 532
Gateways to the lower limb 535
Nerves 537
Arteries 540
Veins 542
Lymphatics 542
Deep fascia and the saphenous opening 544
Femoral triangle 545
Gluteal region 547
Muscles 548
Nerves 551
Arteries 554
Veins 554
Lymphatics 554
Thigh 555
Bones 555
Muscles 561
Arteries 569
Veins 573
Nerves 573
Knee joint 575
Tibiofibular joint 584
Popliteal fossa 584
Leg 585
Bones 586
Joints 588
Posterior compartment of leg 588
Lateral compartment of leg 595
Anterior compartment of leg 596
Foot 600
Bones 600
Joints 605
Tarsal tunnel, retinacula, and arrangement of major
structures at the ankle 612
Arches of the foot 614
Plantar aponeurosis 615
Fibrous sheaths of toes 615
Extensor hoods 616
Intrinsic muscles 616
Arteries 622
Veins 624
Nerves 624
Surface anatomy 628
Lower limb surface anatomy 628
Avoiding the sciatic nerve 628
Finding the femoral artery in the femoral
triangle 630
Identifying structures around the knee 630
Visualizing the contents of the popliteal fossa 632
Finding the tarsal tunnel-the gateway to the
foot 633
Identifying tendons around the ankle and in the
foot 634
Finding the dorsalis pedis artery 635
Approximating the position of the plantar arterial
arch 635
Major superficial veins 636
Pulse points 637
Clinical cases 638
77 Upper limb
Conceptual overview 650
General description 650
Functions 651
Positioning the hand 651
The hand as a mechanical tool 651
The hand as a sensory tool 654
Component parts 654
Bones and joints 654
Muscles 655
Relationship to other regions 657
Neck 657
Back and thoracic wall 658
Key points 659
Innervation by cervical and upper thoracic
nerves 659
Nerves related to bone 663
Superficial veins 663
Orientation of the thumb 664
Regional anatomy 665
Shoulder 665
Bones 665
Joints 668
Muscles 675
Posterior scapular region 678
Muscles 678
Gateways to the posterior scapular region 680
Nerves 682
Arteries and veins 682
Axilla 684
Axillary inlet 685
Anterior wall 686
Medial wall 688
Lateral wall 690
Posterior wall 691
Gateways in the posterior wall 692
Floor 693
Contents of the axilla 693
Arm 710
Bones 712
Muscles 715
Arteries and veins 717
Nerves 720
Elbow joint 724
Cubital fossa 729
Forearm 731
Bones 732
Joints 734
Anterior compartment of the forearm 736
Muscles 736
Arteries and veins 742
Nerves 743
Posterior compartment of the forearm 745
Muscles 745
Arteries and veins 750
Nerves 751
Hand 751
Bones 752
Joints 754
Carpal tunnel and structures at the wrist 756
Palmar aponeurosis 758
Palmaris brevis 759
Anatomical snuffbox 759
Fibrous digital sheaths 759
Extensor hoods 760
Muscles 762
Arteries and veins 767
Nerves 770
Surface anatomy 775
Upper limb surface anatomy 775
Bony landmarks and muscles of the posterior
scapular region 775
Visualizing the axilla and locating contents and
related structures 777
Locating the brachial artery in the arm 779
The triceps brachii tendon and position of the radial
nerve 779
Cubital fossa (anterior view) 779
Identifying tendons and locating major vessels and
nerves in the distal forearm 781
Normal appearance of the hand 782
Position of the flexor retinaculum and the recurrent
branch of the median nerve 783
Motor function of the median and ulnar nerves in
the hand 783
Visualizing the positions of the superficial and deep
palmar arches 784
Pulse points 784
Clinical cases 786
8 Head and neck
Conceptual overview 796
General description 796
Head 796
Neck 798
Functions 799
Protection 799
Contains upper parts of respiratory and digestive
tracts 799
Communication 800
Positioning the head 800
Connects the upper and lower respiratory and
digestive tracts 800
Component parts 800
Skull 800
Cervical vertebrae 802
Hyoid bone 803
Soft palate 804
Muscles 804
Relationship to other regions 805
Thorax 805
Upper limbs 805
Key features 806
Vertebral levels CIII/IV and CV/VI 806
Airway in the neck 806
Cranial nerves 807
Cervical nerves 808
Functional separation of the digestive and
respiratory passages 808
Triangles of the neck 811
Regional anatomy 812
Skull 812
Anterior view 812
Lateral view 814
Posterior view 816
Superior view 818
Inferior view 819
Cranial cavity 822
Roof 822
Floor 823
Meninges 830
Cranial dura mater 830
Arachnoid mater 833
Pia mater 833
Arrangement of meninges and spaces 834
Brain and its blood supply 835
Brain 835
Blood supply 837
Venous drainage 842
Cranial nerves 848
Olfactory nerve [I] 849
Optic nerve [II] 850
Oculomotor nerve [III] 850
Trochlear nerve [IV] 850
Trigeminal nerve [V] 851
Ophthalmic nerve [V1] 852
Maxillary nerve [V2] 852
Mandibular nerve [V3] 852
Abducent nerve [VI] 852
Facial nerve [VII] 852
Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] 853
Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] 853
Vagus nerve [X] 853
Accessory nerve [XI] 854
Hypoglossal nerve [XII] 854
Face 856
Muscles 857
Parotid gland 863
Innervation 865
Vessels 869
Scalp 873
Layers 873
Innervation 874
Vessels 876
Lymphatic drainage 877
Orbit 878
Bony orbit 878
Eyelids 879
Lacrimal apparatus 882
Sensory innervation 882
Fissures and foramina 885
Fascial specializations 886
Muscles 887
Vessels 892
Innervation 893
Eyeball 898
Ear 902
External ear 903
Middle ear 906
Internal ear 913
Temporal and infratemporal fossae 920
Bony framework 920
Temporomandibular joints 922
Masseter muscle 925
Temporal fossa 926
Infratemporal fossa 929
Pterygopalatine fossa 940
Skeletal framework 940
Gateways 941
Contents 942
Neck 947
Fascia 948
Superficial venous drainage 950
Anterior triangle of the neck 954
Posterior triangle of the neck 968
Root of the neck 976
Pharynx 985
Skeletal framework 986
Pharyngeal wall 987
Fascia 990
Gaps in the pharyngeal wall and structures passing
through them 990
Nasopharynx 991
Oropharynx 993
Laryngopharynx 993
Tonsils 993
Vessels 994
Nerves 996
Larynx 997
Laryngeal cartilages 998
Extrinsic ligaments 1000
Intrinsic ligaments 1001
Laryngeal joints 1002
Cavity of the larynx 1003
Intrinsic muscles 1005
Function of the larynx 1008
Vessels 1010
Nerves 1012
Nasal cavities 1013
Lateral wall 1014
Regions 1015
Innervation and blood supply 1016
Skeletal framework 1016
External nose 1018
Paranasal sinuses 1018
Walls, floor, and roof 1020
Nares 1024
Choanae 1024
Gateways 1024
Vessels 1026
Innervation 1028
Oral cavity 1030
Multiple nerves innervate the oral cavity 1031
Skeletal framework 1031
Walls: the cheeks 1034
Floor 1035
Tongue 1037
Salivary glands 1044
Roof-palate 1047
Oral fissure and lips 1055
Oropharyngeal isthmus 1055
Teeth and gingivae 1056
Surface anatomy 1061
Head and neck surface anatomy 1061
Anatomical position of the head and major
landmarks 1062
Visualizing structures at the CIII/CIV and CVI
vertebral levels 1063
How to outline the anterior and posterior triangles
of the neck 1063
How to locate the cricothyroid ligament 1064
How to find the thyroid gland 1065
Estimating the position of the middle meningeal
artery 1066
Major features of the face 1067
The eye and lacrimal apparatus 1068
External ear 1069
Pulse points 1070
Clinical cases 1071